Monthly Archives: December 2016

Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 118 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include David E. Rumelhart, James L. McClelland, Alix Beatty, International Association for Development of the Information Society, Susan M. Land, Brian Butterworth, David H. Jonassen, and Bernhard Bierschenk.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1997). Informational Interaction with Model-Societies of Different Theoretical Orientation. No. 63. This study, which includes data collected over a 15 year period, examines to what degree Swedish citizens' judgment concerning life quality is attributed to perceptions of real or simulated models of civilization. Subjects selected for the research study included Swedish male and female teachers, and doctoral students in business administration. The research instrument used required subjects to watch a video series that presented a vision of the U.S. society during the 1970s. The subjects were then asked to respond to questions regarding how they imagine themselves living in that society. Responses were expected to reflect initial assumptions that (1) competition implies selection; (2) selection implies independence; and (3) independence implies success. The subjects' notions of himself or herself as competent and successful in the simulated situation appears to be at stake. Subjects who emerge from "certainty in preferential judgment" concerning the possibility to integrate are seen as demonstrating a fundamental psychological expression of competence. Subjects' competence is judged in terms of perceived appropriateness in ability to meet the demands of certain environments. Findings suggest that Swedish citizens imagine potential life quality within simulated society in terms relative to self-judgments regarding their own competence or success in real-life situations. (Contains 23 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Foreign Countries, Quality of Life, Self Concept

Butterworth, Brian (2005). The Development of Arithmetical Abilities, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Arithmetical skills are essential to the effective exercise of citizenship in a numerate society. How these skills are acquired, or fail to be acquired, is of great importance not only to individual children but to the organisation of formal education and its role in society. Method: The evidence on the normal and abnormal developmental progression of arithmetical abilities is reviewed; in particular, evidence for arithmetical ability arising from innate specific cognitive skills (innate numerosity) vs. general cognitive abilities (the Piagetian view) is compared. Results: These include evidence from infancy research, neuropsychological studies of developmental dyscalculia, neuroimaging and genetics. The development of arithmetical abilities can be described in terms of the idea of numerosity–the number of objects in a set. Early arithmetic is usually thought of as the effects on numerosity of operations on sets such as set union. The child's concept of numerosity appears to be innate, as infants, even in the first week of life, seem to discriminate visual arrays on the basis of numerosity. Development can be seen in terms of an increasingly sophisticated understanding of numerosity and its implications, and in increasing skill in manipulating numerosities. The impairment in the capacity to learn arithmetic–dyscalculia–can be interpreted in many cases as a deficit in the concept in the child's concept of numerosity. The neuroanatomical bases of arithmetical development and other outstanding issues are discussed. Conclusions: The evidence broadly supports the idea of an innate specific capacity for acquiring arithmetical skills, but the effects of the content of learning, and the timing of learning in the course of development, requires further investigation.   [More]  Descriptors: Evidence, Neurology, Genetics, Arithmetic

Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L. (1985). On Learning the Past Tenses of English Verbs. An alternative to the standard "rule based" account of a child's acquisition of the past tense in English is presented in this paper. While the rule based assumption suggests that children typically pass through a three-phase acquisition process in which they first learn past tense by rote, then learn the past tense rule and overregularize, and then finally learn the exceptions to the rule, this paper argues that the acquisition data can be accounted for in more detail by dispensing with the assumption and substituting in its place a simple homogeneous learning procedure. The paper shows how "rule-like" behavior can emerge from the interactions among a network of units encoding the root form to past tense mapping. The paper concludes with the observation that a large computer simulation of the learning process demonstrates the operating rules of this alternative account, shows how details of the acquisition process not captured by the rule account emerge, and makes predictions about other details of the acquisition process not yet observed. A description of a binding network for converting the computer representation to a phonological representation is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Development, Children, Developmental Stages, Language Acquisition

Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed. (1999). Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or restructured by constructivism and its associated theories, including situated, sociocultural, ecological, everyday, and distributed conceptions of cognition. These theories represent a paradigm shift for educators and instructional designers, to a view of learning as necessarily more social, conversational, and constructive than traditional transmissive views of learning. Never in the history of education have so many different theories said the same things about the nature of learning and the means for supporting it. At the same time, although there is a remarkable amount of consonance among these theories, each also provides a distinct perspective on how learning and sense making occur. This book provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to these theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, and corporations. It is well-suited as a required or supplementary text for courses in instructional design and theory, educational psychology, learning, theory, curriculum theory and design, and related areas.  Contents include: (1) Preface: Student-Centered Learning Environments (S. M. Land, M. J. Hannafin); (2) From Practice Fields to Communities of Practice (S. A. Barab and T. M. Duffy); (3) Situated Cognition in Theoretical and Practical Context (B. G. Wilson, K. M. Myers); (4) Revisiting Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Student-Centered Learning Environments (D. H. Jonassen); (5) Distributed Cognitions, by Nature and by Design (P. Bell, W. Winn); (6) Agent as Detector: An Ecological Psychology Perspective on Learning by Perceiving-Acting Systems (M. F. Young, S. A. Barab, S. Garrett); (7) Lessons From Everyday Reasoning in Mathematics Education: Realism Versus Meaningfulness; (8) Socially-Shared Cognition: System Design and the Organization of Collaborative Research (D. W. Carraher, A. D. Schliemann, K. Brown, M. Cole); and (9) Theory and Practice of Case-Based Learning Aids (J. L. Kolodner, M. Guzdial).   [More]  Descriptors: Communities of Practice, Constructivism (Learning), Instructional Design, Mathematics Education

Beatty, Alix (2005). Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary, National Academies Press. The National Research Council (NRC), through the Center for Education (CFE), wishes to build on the work in early childhood it has already done. In particular, the NRC wishes to focus on research on young children and their learning of mathematical and scientific ideas. The workshop that is the subject of this report, one in a series of workshops made possible through a grant to the CFE from the National Science Foundation, is the starting point for that effort. The center's mission is to promote evidence-based policy analysis that both responds to current needs and anticipates future ones. This one-day workshop was designed as an initial step in exploring the research in cognition and developmental psychology that sheds light on children's capacity to learn mathematical and scientific ideas. The workshop brought experts together to discuss research on the ways children's cognitive capacities can serve as building blocks in the development of mathematical and scientific understanding. The workshop also focused on curricular and resource materials for mathematics and science found in early childhood education settings as a means to examine particular research-based assumptions that influence classroom practice. The sole purpose of this report is to describe the discussions that took place at that workshop. However, issues for further investigation are explored in two afterwords.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Child Development, Science Education, Mathematics Education

International Association for Development of the Information Society (2012). Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA) (Madrid, Spain, October 19-21, 2012). The IADIS CELDA 2012 Conference intention was to address the main issues concerned with evolving learning processes and supporting pedagogies and applications in the digital age. There had been advances in both cognitive psychology and computing that have affected the educational arena. The convergence of these two disciplines is increasing at a fast pace and affecting academia and professional practice in many ways. Paradigms such as just-in-time learning, constructivism, student-centered learning and collaborative approaches have emerged and are being supported by technological advancements such as simulations, virtual reality and multi-agents systems. These developments have created both opportunities and areas of serious concerns. This conference aimed to cover both technological as well as pedagogical issues related to these developments. The IADIS CELDA 2012 Conference received 98 submissions from more than 24 countries. Out of the papers submitted, 29 were accepted as full papers. In addition to the presentation of full papers, short papers and reflection papers, the conference also includes a keynote presentation from internationally distinguished researchers. Individual papers contain figures, tables, and references.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Persistence, Academic Support Services, Access to Computers

Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 117 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Pedro Isias, Paul Bloom, Peter Jarvis, Agnes Volein, Benjamin Kuipers, Steven Ritter, Gergely Csibra, James Arthur, Fiona J. Scott, and Stephen B. Gilbert.

Kuipers, Benjamin; Kassirer, Jerome P. (1984). Causal Reasoning in Medicine: Analysis of a Protocol, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Describes the construction of a knowledge representation from the identification of the problem (nephrotic syndrome) to a running computer simulation of causal reasoning to provide a vertical slice of the construction of a cognitive model. Interactions between textbook knowledge, observations of human experts, and computational requirements are demonstrated. Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Processes, Computer Simulation, Interviews

Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie (2004). Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results: The autism group utilised gestalt grouping principles (proximity, similarity, closure) significantly less than the controls. Calculating an overall index of gestalt grouping, the autism group performed at chance level. There was also a deficit in identifying certain impossible figures. This pattern was not reflected in a drawing task, in which the autism sample conformed more to gestalt grouping principles than controls (non-significantly). Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of a failure in autism to process inter-element relationships that would allow for the appreciation of larger perceptually coherent units that comprise of multiple elements and, consequently, context. The processes are argued to be preattentive.   [More]  Descriptors: Autism, Children, Control Groups, Cognitive Processes

Bonnema, Ted R. (2009). Enhancing Student Learning with Brain-Based Research, Online Submission. This paper discusses brain-based learning and its relation to classroom instruction. A rapidly growing quantity of research currently exists regarding how the brain perceives, processes, and ultimately learns new information. In order to maximize their teaching efficacy, educators should have a basic understanding of key memory functions in the brain, and how these functions relate to student learning. In this paper, the author surveys current literature to identify foundational instructional strategies that are supported by brain-based research. A Microsoft PowerPoint[R] presentation is included that is intended for use at an in-service training with the goal of providing participants with (1) an overview of research findings with respect to the information processing and memory functions of the brain, and (2) overarching areas of instructional strategies that are supported by current research. The presentation is designed for use by educators and others involved in direct instruction in both primary and secondary education. Two appendixes are included: (1) Pre-Presentation Survey; and (2) Post-Presentation Survey.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Strategies, Learning Processes, Brain, Educational Research

Casenhiser, Devin; Goldberg, Adele E. (2005). Fast Mapping between a Phrasal Form and Meaning, Developmental Science. This is the first study to investigate experimentally how children come to learn mappings between novel phrasal forms and novel meanings: a central task in learning a language. Two experiments are reported. In both studies 5- to 7-year-old children watched a short set of video clips depicting objects appearing in various ways. Each scene was described using a novel verb embedded in a novel construction. Children who watched the videos and heard the accompanying description were able to match new descriptions that used the novel construction with new scenes of appearance. Moreover, our results suggest a facilitative effect for the disproportionately high frequency of occurrence of a single verb in a particular construction (such as has been found to exist in naturalistic input to children). While the fast mapping might be taken as an indication of innate knowledge that is specific to language, analogous effects in non-linguistic categorization tasks suggest that children are acquiring the new phrasal form with general cognitive skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Verbs, Language Acquisition, Experiments, Video Technology

Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul (2005). Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict, Developmental Science. Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of conflicting desires in different minds, as well as with changes of mind within an individual across time. The data revealed that only the adults were able to adequately explain the Ulysses conflict. Study 2 asked children (4-7 years) and adults to choose among three explicitly presented competing explanations for self-subverting behaviors. The results suggest that an understanding of the influence of conflicting mental states on behaviors does not occur until at least 7 years of age.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict, Cognitive Development, Adults, Child Development

Michaels, Sarah; Shouse, Andrew W.; Schweingruber, Heidi A. (2007). Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms, National Academies Press. What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators, teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, and school administrators need to know to create and support such experiences? "Ready, Set, Science!" guides the way with an account of the groundbreaking and comprehensive synthesis of research into teaching and learning science in kindergarten through eighth grade. Based on the recently released National Research Council report "Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8," this book summarizes a rich body of findings from the learning sciences and builds detailed cases of science educators at work to make the implications of research clear, accessible, and stimulating for a broad range of science educators. "Ready, Set, Science!" is filled with classroom case studies that bring to life the research findings and help readers to replicate success. Most of these stories are based on real classroom experiences that illustrate the complexities that teachers grapple with every day. They show how teachers work to select and design rigorous and engaging instructional tasks, manage classrooms, orchestrate productive discussions with culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students, and help students make their thinking visible using a variety of representational tools. This book will be an essential resource for science education practitioners and contains information that will be extremely useful to everyone including parents directly or indirectly involved in the teaching of science.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Science Instruction, Science Education, Elementary School Science

National Center for Education Research (2009). Publications Emerging from Research Funded through the National Center for Education Research as of September 30, 2009. Since 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) has funded more than 400 research grants through the National Center for Education Research. This document lists the publications that have resulted from these projects. Publications from IES grantees include articles intended for scientific audiences, as well as articles written for general audiences. The topics span the range from basic translational research to the evaluation of state education policies. As the publishing process is dynamic, and new articles are appearing regularly, IES plans to update this list at regular intervals. Contents contain publications in: (1) Cognition and Student Learning; (2) Education Leadership; (3) Education Policy, Finance, and Systems; (4) Education Technology; (5) Mathematics and Science Education; (6) National Research and Development Centers; (7) Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research; (8) Reading and Writing; (9) Social and Character Development; (10) Teacher Quality– Mathematics and Science; (11) Teacher Quality–Reading and Writing; and (12) Unsolicited and Other Awards.   [More]  Descriptors: Audiences, Grants, Educational Research, Publications

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K. (2006). Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series, APA Books. "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and experience. Relying on the latest techniques in cognitive and temperament measurement, neuroimaging, and molecular genetics, the book integrates research on neural networks common to all of us with studies of individual differences. In this book, the authors explain where, when, and how the brain performs functions that are necessary for learning. Such functions include attending to information; controlling attention through effort; regulating the interplay of emotion with cognition; and coding, organizing, and retrieving information. The authors suggest how these aspects of brain development can support school readiness, literacy, numeracy, and expertise. The audience for this book includes neuroscientists as well as developmental and educational psychologists who have interest in the latest brain research. The many helpful visuals–including brain diagrams, pictures and photographs of experimental set-ups, and graphs and tables displaying key data–also give this book appeal for graduate students. An author index and a subject index are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Expertise, School Readiness, Educational Psychology, Genetics

Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Issa, Theodora, Ed.; McKay, Elspeth, Ed.; Isias, Pedro, Ed. (2016). Proceedings of the International Conferences on Internet Technologies & Society (ITS), Education Technologies (ICEduTECH), and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) (Melbourne, Australia, December 6-8, 2016), International Association for Development of the Information Society. These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the International Conferences on Internet Technologies & Society (ITS 2016), Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2016) and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE 2016), which have been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia, December 6-8, 2016. The Internet Technologies & Society conference aims to address the main issues of concern within WWW/Internet as well as to assess the influence of Internet in the Information Society. The International Conference on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech) is the scientific conference addressing the real topics as seen by teachers, students, parents and school leaders. The International Conference on Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) aims to address the main issues which occur by assessing the relationship between Sustainability, Education and Technology. Full papers in these proceedings include: (1) ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features (Kuo Kun Tseng, Dachao Lee and Charles Chen); (2) Smartening Up: Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (Lucy Cradduck); (3) Extraction of Graph Information Based on Image Contents and the Use of Ontology (Sarunya Kanjanawattana and Masaomi Kimura); (4) Applicability of Domain-Specific Application Framework for End-User Development (Takeshi Chusho); (5) Application of Business Intelligence System in Company Restructuring Process: The Case of Croatia (Iva Bakula, Katarina Curko, Mirjana Pejic Bach and Vesna Bosilj VukÅ°ic); (6) Method to Identify Deep Cases Based on Relationships between Nouns, Verbs, and Particles (Daisuke Ide and Madaomi Kimura); (7) Leveraging Data Analysis for Domain Experts: An Embeddable Framework for Basic Data Science Tasks (Johannes-Y. Lohrer, Daniel Kaltenthaler and Peer Kröger); (8) Investigating the Identity Theft Prevention Strategies in M-Commerce (Mahmood Hussain Shah, Javed Ahmed and Zahoor Ahmed Soomro); (9) Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation (Juan José Ramírez-Jiménez, Mario De La O-Selva and Roberto Cortés-Morales); (10) Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change (Chao Zhang, Lili Wan and Daihwan Min); (11) Evaluating the Quality of Experience of a System for Accessing Educational Objects in Health (Miguel Wanderley, Júlio Menezes Jr., Cristine Gusmão and Rodrigo Lins); (12) An Evaluation of iPad As a Learning Tool in Higher Education within a Rural Catchment: A Case Study at a South African University (Ruth Diko Wario, Bonface Ngari Ireri and Lizette De Wet); (13) Towards a Framework to Improve the Quality of Teaching and Learning: Consciousness and Validation in Computer Engineering Science, UCT (Marcos Lévano and Andrea Albornoz); (14) MOOCs–Theoretical and Practical Aspects: Comparison of Selected Research Results: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Australia (Eugenia Smyrnova-Trybulska, Ewa Ogrodzka-Mazur, Anna Szafranska-Gajdzica, Nataliia Morze, Rusudan Makhachashvili, Tatiana Noskova, Tatiana Pavlova, Olga Yakovleva, Tomayess Issa and Theodora Issa); (15) Evaluating the Design and Development of an Adaptive E-Tutorial Module: A Rasch-Measurement Approach (Allaa Barefah and Elspeth McKay); (16) Analysing Students' Interactions through Social Presence and Social Network Metrics (Vanessa Cristina Martins da Silva and Sean Wolfgand Matsui Siqueira); (17) Differences between Perceived Usefulness of Social Media and Institutional Channels by Undergraduate Students (Leandro Sumida Garcia and Camila Mariane Costa Silva); (18) Integrate WeChat with Moodle to Provide a Mobile Learning Environment for Students (Zhigao Li, Yibo Fan and Jianli Jiao); (19) Scaling a Model of Teacher Professional Learning–to MOOC or Not to MOOC (Deirdre Butler, Margaret Leahy, Michael Hallissy and Mark Brown); (20) A Preliminary Study on Building an E-Education Platform for Indian School-Level Curricula (Rajeev Kumar Kanth and Mikko-Jussi Laakso); (21) Automated Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses (Dmitrii A. Ivaniushin, Dmitrii G. Shtennikov, Eugene A. Efimchick and Andrey V. Lyamin); (22) Application of Digital Cybersecurity Approaches to University Management–VFU Smart Student (Anna Nedyalkova, Teodora Bakardjieva and Krasimir Nedyalkov); (23) Developing a Technology Enhanced CSO Course for Engineering Students (Erno Lokkila, Erkki Kaila, Rolf Lindén, Mikko-Jussi Laakso and Erkki Sutinen); (24) Teaching Data Science to Post Graduate Students: A Preliminary Study Using a "F-L-I-P" Class Room Approach (Sunet Eybers and Mariè Hattingh); (25) Educational Robots in Primary School Teachers' and Students' Opinion about STEM Education for Young Learners (Eugenia Smyrnova-Trybulska, Nataliia Morze, Piet Kommers, Wojciech Zuziak and Mariia Gladun); (26) Towards the Successful Integration of Design Thinking in Industrial Design Education (Omar Mubin, Mauricio Novoa and Abdullah Al Mahmud); (27) International Study Tours: A Key to 21st Century Academic and Industry Exchanges (Ana Hol, Danielle Simiana, Gilbert Lieu, Ivan Ong, Josh Feder, Nimat Dawre and Wakil Almazi); (28) A Rethink for Computing Education for Sustainability (Samuel Mann); (29) Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India (Gagan Deep Sharma, Raminder Singh Uppal and Mandeep Mahendru); (30) Evaluating Eco-Innovation of OECD Countries with Data Development Analysis (Reza Kiani Mavi and Craig Standing); (31) Revealing Greenwashing: A Consumers' Perspective (Anne Brouwer); and (32) Benchmarking Anthropogenic Heavy Metals Emissions: Australian and Global Urban Environmental Health Risk Based Indicators of Sustainability (Nick Dejkovski). Short papers in these proceedings include: (1) Racing to the Future: Security in the Gigabit Race? (Mark A Gregory and Lucy Cradduck); (2) An E-Learning System with MR for Experiments Involving Circuit Construction to Control a Robot (Atsushi Takemura); (3) Simulations for Crisis Communication: The Use of Social Media (Siyoung Chung); (4) Social Networking Framework for Universities in Saudi Arabia (Sulaiman Alqahtani); (5) Rethinking E-Learning Media: What Happens When Student "Like" Meets Professor "Me"? (Stephen Arnold); (6) Telling the Story of Mindrising: Minecraft, Mindfulness and Meaningful Learning (Deirdre Butler, Mark Brown and Gar Mac Críosta); (7) Green IT Model for IT Departments in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Organisations (Abdulaziz Albahlal); (8) How Does the Use of Mobile Devices Affect Teachers' Perceptions on Mobile Learning (Dong-Joong Kim, Daesang Kim and Sang-Ho Choiv); (9) Categorizing "Others": The Segmentation of Other Actors for "Faith in Others" Efficacy (FIO) (Chi Kwan Ng and Clare D'Souza); (10) Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa (Keneilwe Munyai); and (11) New Ecological Paradigm and Sustainability Attitudes with Respect to a Multi-Cultural Educational Milieu in China (Mona Wells and Lynda Petherick). Reflection papers in these proceedings include: (1) Synthetic Biology: Knowledge Accessed by Everyone (Open Sources) (Patricia Margarita Sánchez Reyes); (2) Envisioning the City of the Future: Knowlege Societies vs. Entertainment Societies (Yolanda Alicia Villegas González); (3) Blue Ocean Strategy for Higher Education (Ricardo BraganÃßa); (4) Exploring How Digital Media Technology Can Foster Saudi EFL Students' English Language Learning (Abdulmohsin Altawil); (5) Cloud Computing in Higher Education Sector for Sustainable Development (Yuchao Duan); and (6) Exploring Connectivism in the Context of Online Social Trading (Endrit Kromidha). Posters in these proceedings include: (1) A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster (Yukiko Maruyama); (2) Effects of a Technology-Friendly Education Program on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Learning Styles (Dong-Joong Kim and Sang-Ho Choi); (3) Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study (Mingming Zhou and Jing Ren); (4) Development of a Diagnostic System for Information Ethics Education (Shingo Shiota, Kyohei Sakai and Keita Kobayashi); (5) A Practical Study of Mathematics Education Using Gamification (Kyohei Sakai and Shingo Shiota); (6) Demonstrating the CollaTrEx Framework for Collaborative Context-Aware Mobile Training and Exploration (Jean Botev); (7) Development of Training/Self-Recognizing Tools for Disability Students Using a Face Expression Recognition Sensor and a Smart-Watch (Taku Kawada, Akinobu Ando, Hirotaka Saito, Jun Uekida, Nobuyuki Nagai, Hisashi Takeshima and Darold Davis); and (8) Analysis of Usage Trends of Social Media and Self-Esteem by the Rosenberg Scale (Hiroko Kanoh). Finally, one doctoral consortium is included: A Model for an Information Security Risk Management (ISRM) Framework for Saudi Arabian Organisations (Naser Alshareef). An author index is provided. Individual papers contain references.   [More]  Descriptors: Conferences (Gatherings), Foreign Countries, Internet, Educational Technology

Willis, Judith (2004). Learning and the Brain: How Administrators Can Improve Teacher Effectiveness through Instruction on How the Brain Learns, AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice. Brain-based teaching and learning focuses on how the brain learns best, and emerging brain research is a significant resource, but only if one knows how to use it as such. Teachers have the professional training and classroom experience to know first hand where there are problems in educational practices, but most teachers haven't been taught about the brain. Teacher education focuses on theories and practical applications of strategies, but rarely includes instruction on how students' brains experience learning and memory making. If teacher education included instruction in neurology, neurophysiology and neuroimaging, teaching professionals could help determine where research is needed, what research is valid and what classroom applications could be developed from valid brain-based research. In addition, the strategies that teachers have often found the most successful are likely to be the ones that can now be supported by this new research. Teachers would be able to explain to students, parents, colleagues and administrators the scientific reasons validating the techniques they use. This all serves to reflect well upon the school administrators. The best administrators are supported by and give support to the highest caliber teachers. When brain structure and function pertaining to the learning process are part of the education those teachers receive through in-service instruction or credential education, the quality of instruction and teacher confidence are both enhanced. As a demonstration of how such instruction would benefit teachers, a brief "mini-lesson" in neurology is followed by a truncated explanation of recent brain-based educational research in the field of memory. With the neurology background the reader should be empowered to comprehend the validity of the study, see the logic of some suggested classroom applications, and use his/her professional knowledge as an educator and classroom experience to design strategies suitable to his/her own needs. This article provides a sample of a well-constructed study of the actual brain activity that is taking place when memories are stored and retrieved. It is a basic primer on some of the brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology necessary to judge the validity of "scientific" claims, and hopefully it stimulates the reader to take a deeper look at this exciting dimension of the teaching profession.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Neurology, Educational Practices, Memory

Halit, Hanife; Csibra, Gergely; Volein, Agnes; Johnson, Mark H. (2004). Face-Sensitive Cortical Processing in Early Infancy, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Debates about the developmental origins of adult face processing could be directly addressed if a clear infant neural marker could be identified. Previous research with infants remains open to criticism regarding the control stimuli employed. Methods: We recorded ERPs from adults and 3-month-old infants while they watched faces and matched visual noise stimuli. Results: We observed similar amplitude enhancement for faces in the infant N290 and adult N170. In contrast, the infant P400 showed only a latency effect, making it unlikely to be the main precursor of the adult N170. Conclusions: We conclude that there is some degree of specificity of cortical processing of faces as early as 3 months of age.   [More]  Descriptors: Stimuli, Infants, Research Problems, Adults

Arthur, James, Ed.; Peterson, Andrew, Ed. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Education, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "The Routledge Companion to Education" presents the most comprehensive, up-to-date guide available to the key theories, themes and topics in education. Forty specially commissioned chapters, covering all aspects of education, introduce you to the ideas, research and issues that have shaped this most diverse, dynamic and fluid field. Part one provides an introduction to the key theories, thinkers and disciplines within education. Part two covers ideas and issues about how, what and why learning takes place. Part three includes analysis on particular approaches to education and explores the issues that attract much contemporary interest. Written by an international team of expert contributors, the chapters all include a descriptive introduction, an analysis of the key ideas and debates, an overview of the latest research, key questions for research and carefully selected further reading. "The Routledge Companion to Education" is a succinct, detailed, authoritative overview of the topics which are at the forefront of educational research and discourse today. This classic collection is a bookshelf essential for every student and scholar serious about the study of education. Part I, Educational Foundations, contains the following: (1) Liberal Education (Mulcahy); (2) Communitarianism (Arthur); (3) Civic Republicanism (Peterson); (4) Postmodernism (Peters and Besley); (5) Feminism (McLeod); (6) History of Education (Raftery); (7) Sociology of Education (Leighton); (8) Philosophy of Education (Oancea); (9) Educational Psychology (Farnan); and (10) Economics of Education (Vignoles). Part II, Teaching and Learning, contains the following: (11) Learning (Jordan and Carlile); (12) Teaching (Kyriacou); (13) Curriculum and Curriculum Studies (Connelly and Xu); (14) Language (Wilkinson and Silliman); (15) Motivation and Behaviour (Ellis and Tod); (16) Creativity (Shaheen); and (17 ) Assessment (Ecclestone). Part III, Organisation and Issues in Education, contains the following: (18) Early Childhood Education and Care (Powell); Education and Schooling 5-11 Years (Bryan); (20) Education and Schooling 11-16 Years (Peterson and Leighton); (21) Post-Compulsory, Higher Education and Training (Bowl); (22) Lifelong Learning (Jarvis); (23) Alternative Education (Warwick); (24) Citizenship Education (Davies); (25) Social Class (Davison); (26) Comparative Education (Schweisfurth); (27) Development Education (Bourn); (28) Cultural-Linguistic Diversity and Inclusion (Wilkinson, Silliman and Danzak); (29) Education and Neuroscience (Tommerdahl); (30) Gender (Sundaram); (31) Globalization (Peim); (32) Well-being and Education (Ecclestone); (33) Leadership and School Effectiveness (Rhodes and Bischoff); (34) Multicultural Education (Kiwan); (35) Education Policy (West); (36) Religion and Education (Sears and Christou); (37) Social Justice and Inequalities in Education (Smith); (38) Sustainable Development (Huckle); (39) Technologies and Learning (Hammond); and (40) Values Education (Lovat).   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Social Class, Nontraditional Education, Multicultural Education

Beitzel, Brian D.; Derry, Sharon J. (2009). When the Book Is Better than the Movie: How Contrasting Video Cases Influence Text Learning, Journal of Educational Computing Research. Video usage in educational contexts is on the rise. We examined 3 alternative theories about cognitive mechanisms of learning and their implications for instructional design when video is employed to enhance text-based learning. Hypothesis-testing procedures followed a falsificationist approach, grounded in philosophy of science literature. Undergraduate students acquired learning-science concepts through web-based activities that involved studying reading material. Participants contrasted video cases "before" reading in one experimental condition, and "after" reading in another. Participants in a control condition read the same texts but saw no video cases. Recall results after a 2-day delay favored the instructional design in which video cases were contrasted "after" reading a text, consistent with a schema-elaboration hypothesis.   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Instructional Design, Reading Materials, Internet

Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Watts, Mary, Ed. (2011). The Routledge International Handbook of Learning. Routledge International Handbooks of Education, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. As our understanding of learning focuses on the whole person rather than individual aspects of learning, so the process of learning is beginning to be studied from a wide variety of perspectives and disciplines. This handbook presents a comprehensive overview of the contemporary research into learning: it brings together a diverse range of specialties with chapters written by leading scholars throughout the world from a wide variety of different approaches. The International Handbook of Learning captures the complexities of the learning process in seven major parts. Its 55 chapters are sub-divided in seven parts: (1) Learning and the person: senses, cognitions, emotions, personality traits and learning styles; (2) Learning across the lifespan; (3) Life-wide learning; (4) Learning across the disciplines: covering everything from anthropology to neuroscience; (5) Meaning systems' interpretation; (6) Learning and disability; and (7) Historical and contemporary learning theorists. Written by international experts, this book is the first comprehensive multi-disciplinary analysis of learning, packing a diverse collection of research into one accessible volume. Part I, Learning and the Person, contains the following: (1) Learning and the Senses (Paul Martin and Viv Martin); (2) Learning Cognitions/Cognitive Learning/Learning and Cognition (Knud Illeris); (3) Learning a Role: Becoming a Nurse (Michelle Camilleri); (4) Self-Constructed Activity, Work Analysis, and Occupational Training: an Approach to Learning Objects for Adults (Marc Durand); (5) Emotional Intelligence (Betty Rudd); (6) Language and Learning (Bernard Camilleri); (7) Gender and Learning–Feminist Perspectives (Julia Preece); (8) Identity and Learning (Lyn Tett); (9) Thinking Styles and Learning (Li-Fang Zhang); and (10) Non-Learning (Peter Jarvis). Part II, Learning Across the Life-Span, contains the following: (11) Learning in Early Childhood (Christine Stephen); (12) The School Years (Kristiina Kumpulainen); (13) Crossing boundaries: Harnessing Funds of Knowledge in Dialogic Inquiry across Formal and Informal Learning Environments (Lasse Lipponen); (14) Young People and Learning (Rachel Brooks); (15) Adult Learning: Andragogy versus Pedagogy or from Pedagogy to Andragogy (Peter Jarvis); (16) Exploring Learning in Midlife (Jo-Anne H. Willment); (17) The Older Adult in Education (Mary Alice Wolf); (18) Lifelong Learning in Long-Term Care Settings (Alexandra Withnall); (19) The Biographical Approach to Lifelong Learning (Peter Alheit); (20) Learning from our Lives (John Field); (21) Psychological Development (Mark Tennant); and (22) Transformative Learning (Patricia Cranton and Edward W. Taylor). Part III, Learning Sites, contains the following: (23) Informal Learning–Everyday Living (Paul Hager); (24) Self-Directed Learning (Katarina Popovic); (25) Learning at the Site of Work (Stephen Billett); (26) Organisational Learning won't be Turned off (Bente Elkjaer); (27) E-learning (m-learning) (Susannah Quinsee); (28) Sleep-dependent Learning (Daan R. van der Veen and Simon N. Archer); (29) Learning and Violence (Shahrzad Mojab and Bethany J. Osborne); and (30) Aesthetic Education (Lars Ilum). Part IV, Learning and Disability, contains the following: (31) Learning, Sensory Impairment Physical Disability (Joanna Beazley Richards); (32) Autism Spectruitions and Learning (Mary Watts); (33) Reading Disability (Julian G. Elliott and Elena L. Grigorenko); and (34) On Becoming a Person in Society: the Person with Dementia (Kay de Vries). Part V, Learning across the Disciplines "Human and Social Sciences", contains the following: (35) Human-centric Learning and Post-human Experimentation (Richard Edwards); (36) Piaget's Constructivism and Adult Learning (Etienne Bourgeois); (37) Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Learning and the Subject called the Learner (Linden West); (38) Sociology and Learning (Martin Dyke and Ian Bryant); (39) Anthropology and Learning (Peggy Froerer); (40) Learning in a Complex World (Mark Olssen); (41) Perspectives on Geography and Learning (Johanna L. Waters); (42) Learning as a Microhistorical Process (Christina Toren Natural Sciences); (43) Evolution (Ian Abrahams and Michael Reiss); (44) The Brain and Learning (John Stein); (45) Cognitive Neurophysiology–Promoting Neuroergonomics of Learning (Anu Holm and Kiti Muller); (46) Pharmacology and Learning (Roberta Stasyk). Part VI, Learning and Religious and Meaning Systems, contains the following: (47) Buddhist Theory of Education (Caroline Brazier and David Brazier); (48) Christianity (Jeff Astley); (49) The Confucian Learning: Learning to Become Fully Human (Qi Sun); (50) Exploring Aspects of Learning in Hindu Philosophy (Prem Kumar); and (51) Learning Within Context of Faith and the Intellect: a Thinking Islam (Naznin Hirji). Part VII, Geographic Cultural Systems–Broader Perspectives, contains the following: (52) Jewish Ways of Learning (Gabriela Ruppin-Shand and Michael Shire); (53) Remodelling Learning on an African Cultural Heritage of Ubuntu (Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko and Oitshepile MmaB Modise); (54) Indian Culture and Learning (Sunil Behari Mohanty); (55) The Challenges of Adult Learning in Latin America: from Literacy to Lifelong Learning (Tim Ireland).   [More]  Descriptors: Learning, Perception, Cognitive Processes, Nurses

Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven (2009). Authoring Model-Tracing Cognitive Tutors, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an interface has to be constructed that communicates with the cognitive model. Together these constitute a high bar that needs to be crossed in order to create such a tutor. We outline a system that lowers this bar on both accounts and that has been used to produce commercial-quality tutors. First, we discuss and evaluate a tool that allows authors who are not cognitive scientists or programmers to create a cognitive model. Second, we detail a way for this cognitive model to communicate with third-party interfaces.   [More]  Descriptors: Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Cognitive Processes, Models, Expertise