Monthly Archives: December 2016

Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 118 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include David E. Rumelhart, James L. McClelland, Alix Beatty, International Association for Development of the Information Society, Susan M. Land, Brian Butterworth, David H. Jonassen, and Bernhard Bierschenk.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1997). Informational Interaction with Model-Societies of Different Theoretical Orientation. No. 63. This study, which includes data collected over a 15 year period, examines to what degree Swedish citizens' judgment concerning life quality is attributed to perceptions of real or simulated models of civilization. Subjects selected for the research study included Swedish male and female teachers, and doctoral students in business administration. The research instrument used required subjects to watch a video series that presented a vision of the U.S. society during the 1970s. The subjects were then asked to respond to questions regarding how they imagine themselves living in that society. Responses were expected to reflect initial assumptions that (1) competition implies selection; (2) selection implies independence; and (3) independence implies success. The subjects' notions of himself or herself as competent and successful in the simulated situation appears to be at stake. Subjects who emerge from "certainty in preferential judgment" concerning the possibility to integrate are seen as demonstrating a fundamental psychological expression of competence. Subjects' competence is judged in terms of perceived appropriateness in ability to meet the demands of certain environments. Findings suggest that Swedish citizens imagine potential life quality within simulated society in terms relative to self-judgments regarding their own competence or success in real-life situations. (Contains 23 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Foreign Countries, Quality of Life, Self Concept

Butterworth, Brian (2005). The Development of Arithmetical Abilities, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Arithmetical skills are essential to the effective exercise of citizenship in a numerate society. How these skills are acquired, or fail to be acquired, is of great importance not only to individual children but to the organisation of formal education and its role in society. Method: The evidence on the normal and abnormal developmental progression of arithmetical abilities is reviewed; in particular, evidence for arithmetical ability arising from innate specific cognitive skills (innate numerosity) vs. general cognitive abilities (the Piagetian view) is compared. Results: These include evidence from infancy research, neuropsychological studies of developmental dyscalculia, neuroimaging and genetics. The development of arithmetical abilities can be described in terms of the idea of numerosity–the number of objects in a set. Early arithmetic is usually thought of as the effects on numerosity of operations on sets such as set union. The child's concept of numerosity appears to be innate, as infants, even in the first week of life, seem to discriminate visual arrays on the basis of numerosity. Development can be seen in terms of an increasingly sophisticated understanding of numerosity and its implications, and in increasing skill in manipulating numerosities. The impairment in the capacity to learn arithmetic–dyscalculia–can be interpreted in many cases as a deficit in the concept in the child's concept of numerosity. The neuroanatomical bases of arithmetical development and other outstanding issues are discussed. Conclusions: The evidence broadly supports the idea of an innate specific capacity for acquiring arithmetical skills, but the effects of the content of learning, and the timing of learning in the course of development, requires further investigation.   [More]  Descriptors: Evidence, Neurology, Genetics, Arithmetic

Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L. (1985). On Learning the Past Tenses of English Verbs. An alternative to the standard "rule based" account of a child's acquisition of the past tense in English is presented in this paper. While the rule based assumption suggests that children typically pass through a three-phase acquisition process in which they first learn past tense by rote, then learn the past tense rule and overregularize, and then finally learn the exceptions to the rule, this paper argues that the acquisition data can be accounted for in more detail by dispensing with the assumption and substituting in its place a simple homogeneous learning procedure. The paper shows how "rule-like" behavior can emerge from the interactions among a network of units encoding the root form to past tense mapping. The paper concludes with the observation that a large computer simulation of the learning process demonstrates the operating rules of this alternative account, shows how details of the acquisition process not captured by the rule account emerge, and makes predictions about other details of the acquisition process not yet observed. A description of a binding network for converting the computer representation to a phonological representation is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Development, Children, Developmental Stages, Language Acquisition

Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed. (1999). Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or restructured by constructivism and its associated theories, including situated, sociocultural, ecological, everyday, and distributed conceptions of cognition. These theories represent a paradigm shift for educators and instructional designers, to a view of learning as necessarily more social, conversational, and constructive than traditional transmissive views of learning. Never in the history of education have so many different theories said the same things about the nature of learning and the means for supporting it. At the same time, although there is a remarkable amount of consonance among these theories, each also provides a distinct perspective on how learning and sense making occur. This book provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to these theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, and corporations. It is well-suited as a required or supplementary text for courses in instructional design and theory, educational psychology, learning, theory, curriculum theory and design, and related areas.  Contents include: (1) Preface: Student-Centered Learning Environments (S. M. Land, M. J. Hannafin); (2) From Practice Fields to Communities of Practice (S. A. Barab and T. M. Duffy); (3) Situated Cognition in Theoretical and Practical Context (B. G. Wilson, K. M. Myers); (4) Revisiting Activity Theory as a Framework for Designing Student-Centered Learning Environments (D. H. Jonassen); (5) Distributed Cognitions, by Nature and by Design (P. Bell, W. Winn); (6) Agent as Detector: An Ecological Psychology Perspective on Learning by Perceiving-Acting Systems (M. F. Young, S. A. Barab, S. Garrett); (7) Lessons From Everyday Reasoning in Mathematics Education: Realism Versus Meaningfulness; (8) Socially-Shared Cognition: System Design and the Organization of Collaborative Research (D. W. Carraher, A. D. Schliemann, K. Brown, M. Cole); and (9) Theory and Practice of Case-Based Learning Aids (J. L. Kolodner, M. Guzdial).   [More]  Descriptors: Communities of Practice, Constructivism (Learning), Instructional Design, Mathematics Education

Beatty, Alix (2005). Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary, National Academies Press. The National Research Council (NRC), through the Center for Education (CFE), wishes to build on the work in early childhood it has already done. In particular, the NRC wishes to focus on research on young children and their learning of mathematical and scientific ideas. The workshop that is the subject of this report, one in a series of workshops made possible through a grant to the CFE from the National Science Foundation, is the starting point for that effort. The center's mission is to promote evidence-based policy analysis that both responds to current needs and anticipates future ones. This one-day workshop was designed as an initial step in exploring the research in cognition and developmental psychology that sheds light on children's capacity to learn mathematical and scientific ideas. The workshop brought experts together to discuss research on the ways children's cognitive capacities can serve as building blocks in the development of mathematical and scientific understanding. The workshop also focused on curricular and resource materials for mathematics and science found in early childhood education settings as a means to examine particular research-based assumptions that influence classroom practice. The sole purpose of this report is to describe the discussions that took place at that workshop. However, issues for further investigation are explored in two afterwords.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Child Development, Science Education, Mathematics Education

International Association for Development of the Information Society (2012). Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA) (Madrid, Spain, October 19-21, 2012). The IADIS CELDA 2012 Conference intention was to address the main issues concerned with evolving learning processes and supporting pedagogies and applications in the digital age. There had been advances in both cognitive psychology and computing that have affected the educational arena. The convergence of these two disciplines is increasing at a fast pace and affecting academia and professional practice in many ways. Paradigms such as just-in-time learning, constructivism, student-centered learning and collaborative approaches have emerged and are being supported by technological advancements such as simulations, virtual reality and multi-agents systems. These developments have created both opportunities and areas of serious concerns. This conference aimed to cover both technological as well as pedagogical issues related to these developments. The IADIS CELDA 2012 Conference received 98 submissions from more than 24 countries. Out of the papers submitted, 29 were accepted as full papers. In addition to the presentation of full papers, short papers and reflection papers, the conference also includes a keynote presentation from internationally distinguished researchers. Individual papers contain figures, tables, and references.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Academic Persistence, Academic Support Services, Access to Computers

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 117 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Pedro Isias, Paul Bloom, Peter Jarvis, Agnes Volein, Benjamin Kuipers, Steven Ritter, Gergely Csibra, James Arthur, Fiona J. Scott, and Stephen B. Gilbert.

Kuipers, Benjamin; Kassirer, Jerome P. (1984). Causal Reasoning in Medicine: Analysis of a Protocol, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Describes the construction of a knowledge representation from the identification of the problem (nephrotic syndrome) to a running computer simulation of causal reasoning to provide a vertical slice of the construction of a cognitive model. Interactions between textbook knowledge, observations of human experts, and computational requirements are demonstrated. Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Processes, Computer Simulation, Interviews

Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie (2004). Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results: The autism group utilised gestalt grouping principles (proximity, similarity, closure) significantly less than the controls. Calculating an overall index of gestalt grouping, the autism group performed at chance level. There was also a deficit in identifying certain impossible figures. This pattern was not reflected in a drawing task, in which the autism sample conformed more to gestalt grouping principles than controls (non-significantly). Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of a failure in autism to process inter-element relationships that would allow for the appreciation of larger perceptually coherent units that comprise of multiple elements and, consequently, context. The processes are argued to be preattentive.   [More]  Descriptors: Autism, Children, Control Groups, Cognitive Processes

Bonnema, Ted R. (2009). Enhancing Student Learning with Brain-Based Research, Online Submission. This paper discusses brain-based learning and its relation to classroom instruction. A rapidly growing quantity of research currently exists regarding how the brain perceives, processes, and ultimately learns new information. In order to maximize their teaching efficacy, educators should have a basic understanding of key memory functions in the brain, and how these functions relate to student learning. In this paper, the author surveys current literature to identify foundational instructional strategies that are supported by brain-based research. A Microsoft PowerPoint[R] presentation is included that is intended for use at an in-service training with the goal of providing participants with (1) an overview of research findings with respect to the information processing and memory functions of the brain, and (2) overarching areas of instructional strategies that are supported by current research. The presentation is designed for use by educators and others involved in direct instruction in both primary and secondary education. Two appendixes are included: (1) Pre-Presentation Survey; and (2) Post-Presentation Survey.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Strategies, Learning Processes, Brain, Educational Research

Casenhiser, Devin; Goldberg, Adele E. (2005). Fast Mapping between a Phrasal Form and Meaning, Developmental Science. This is the first study to investigate experimentally how children come to learn mappings between novel phrasal forms and novel meanings: a central task in learning a language. Two experiments are reported. In both studies 5- to 7-year-old children watched a short set of video clips depicting objects appearing in various ways. Each scene was described using a novel verb embedded in a novel construction. Children who watched the videos and heard the accompanying description were able to match new descriptions that used the novel construction with new scenes of appearance. Moreover, our results suggest a facilitative effect for the disproportionately high frequency of occurrence of a single verb in a particular construction (such as has been found to exist in naturalistic input to children). While the fast mapping might be taken as an indication of innate knowledge that is specific to language, analogous effects in non-linguistic categorization tasks suggest that children are acquiring the new phrasal form with general cognitive skills.   [More]  Descriptors: Verbs, Language Acquisition, Experiments, Video Technology

Choe, Katherine S.; Keil, Frank C.; Bloom, Paul (2005). Children's Understanding of the Ulysses Conflict, Developmental Science. Two studies explored children's understanding of how the presence of conflicting mental states in a single mind can lead people to act so as to subvert their own desires. Study 1 analyzed explanations by children (4-7 years) and adults of behaviors arising from this sort of "Ulysses conflict" and compared them with their understanding of conflicting desires in different minds, as well as with changes of mind within an individual across time. The data revealed that only the adults were able to adequately explain the Ulysses conflict. Study 2 asked children (4-7 years) and adults to choose among three explicitly presented competing explanations for self-subverting behaviors. The results suggest that an understanding of the influence of conflicting mental states on behaviors does not occur until at least 7 years of age.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict, Cognitive Development, Adults, Child Development

Michaels, Sarah; Shouse, Andrew W.; Schweingruber, Heidi A. (2007). Ready, Set, SCIENCE!: Putting Research to Work in K-8 Science Classrooms, National Academies Press. What types of instructional experiences help K-8 students learn science with understanding? What do science educators, teachers, teacher leaders, science specialists, professional development staff, curriculum designers, and school administrators need to know to create and support such experiences? "Ready, Set, Science!" guides the way with an account of the groundbreaking and comprehensive synthesis of research into teaching and learning science in kindergarten through eighth grade. Based on the recently released National Research Council report "Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8," this book summarizes a rich body of findings from the learning sciences and builds detailed cases of science educators at work to make the implications of research clear, accessible, and stimulating for a broad range of science educators. "Ready, Set, Science!" is filled with classroom case studies that bring to life the research findings and help readers to replicate success. Most of these stories are based on real classroom experiences that illustrate the complexities that teachers grapple with every day. They show how teachers work to select and design rigorous and engaging instructional tasks, manage classrooms, orchestrate productive discussions with culturally and linguistically diverse groups of students, and help students make their thinking visible using a variety of representational tools. This book will be an essential resource for science education practitioners and contains information that will be extremely useful to everyone including parents directly or indirectly involved in the teaching of science.   [More]  Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Science Instruction, Science Education, Elementary School Science

National Center for Education Research (2009). Publications Emerging from Research Funded through the National Center for Education Research as of September 30, 2009. Since 2002, the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) has funded more than 400 research grants through the National Center for Education Research. This document lists the publications that have resulted from these projects. Publications from IES grantees include articles intended for scientific audiences, as well as articles written for general audiences. The topics span the range from basic translational research to the evaluation of state education policies. As the publishing process is dynamic, and new articles are appearing regularly, IES plans to update this list at regular intervals. Contents contain publications in: (1) Cognition and Student Learning; (2) Education Leadership; (3) Education Policy, Finance, and Systems; (4) Education Technology; (5) Mathematics and Science Education; (6) National Research and Development Centers; (7) Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research; (8) Reading and Writing; (9) Social and Character Development; (10) Teacher Quality– Mathematics and Science; (11) Teacher Quality–Reading and Writing; and (12) Unsolicited and Other Awards.   [More]  Descriptors: Audiences, Grants, Educational Research, Publications

Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K. (2006). Educating the Human Brain. Human Brain Development Series, APA Books. "Educating the Human Brain" is the product of a quarter century of research. This book provides an empirical account of the early development of attention and self regulation in infants and young children. It examines the brain areas involved in regulatory networks, their connectivity, and how their development is influenced by genes and experience. Relying on the latest techniques in cognitive and temperament measurement, neuroimaging, and molecular genetics, the book integrates research on neural networks common to all of us with studies of individual differences. In this book, the authors explain where, when, and how the brain performs functions that are necessary for learning. Such functions include attending to information; controlling attention through effort; regulating the interplay of emotion with cognition; and coding, organizing, and retrieving information. The authors suggest how these aspects of brain development can support school readiness, literacy, numeracy, and expertise. The audience for this book includes neuroscientists as well as developmental and educational psychologists who have interest in the latest brain research. The many helpful visuals–including brain diagrams, pictures and photographs of experimental set-ups, and graphs and tables displaying key data–also give this book appeal for graduate students. An author index and a subject index are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Expertise, School Readiness, Educational Psychology, Genetics

Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Issa, Theodora, Ed.; McKay, Elspeth, Ed.; Isias, Pedro, Ed. (2016). Proceedings of the International Conferences on Internet Technologies & Society (ITS), Education Technologies (ICEduTECH), and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) (Melbourne, Australia, December 6-8, 2016), International Association for Development of the Information Society. These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the International Conferences on Internet Technologies & Society (ITS 2016), Educational Technologies (ICEduTech 2016) and Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE 2016), which have been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the RMIT University, in Melbourne, Australia, December 6-8, 2016. The Internet Technologies & Society conference aims to address the main issues of concern within WWW/Internet as well as to assess the influence of Internet in the Information Society. The International Conference on Educational Technologies (ICEduTech) is the scientific conference addressing the real topics as seen by teachers, students, parents and school leaders. The International Conference on Sustainability, Technology and Education (STE) aims to address the main issues which occur by assessing the relationship between Sustainability, Education and Technology. Full papers in these proceedings include: (1) ECG Identification System Using Neural Network with Global and Local Features (Kuo Kun Tseng, Dachao Lee and Charles Chen); (2) Smartening Up: Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback (Lucy Cradduck); (3) Extraction of Graph Information Based on Image Contents and the Use of Ontology (Sarunya Kanjanawattana and Masaomi Kimura); (4) Applicability of Domain-Specific Application Framework for End-User Development (Takeshi Chusho); (5) Application of Business Intelligence System in Company Restructuring Process: The Case of Croatia (Iva Bakula, Katarina Curko, Mirjana Pejic Bach and Vesna Bosilj VukÅ°ic); (6) Method to Identify Deep Cases Based on Relationships between Nouns, Verbs, and Particles (Daisuke Ide and Madaomi Kimura); (7) Leveraging Data Analysis for Domain Experts: An Embeddable Framework for Basic Data Science Tasks (Johannes-Y. Lohrer, Daniel Kaltenthaler and Peer Kröger); (8) Investigating the Identity Theft Prevention Strategies in M-Commerce (Mahmood Hussain Shah, Javed Ahmed and Zahoor Ahmed Soomro); (9) Electronic Invoice in Costa Rica: Challenges for Its Implementation (Juan José Ramírez-Jiménez, Mario De La O-Selva and Roberto Cortés-Morales); (10) Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change (Chao Zhang, Lili Wan and Daihwan Min); (11) Evaluating the Quality of Experience of a System for Accessing Educational Objects in Health (Miguel Wanderley, Júlio Menezes Jr., Cristine Gusmão and Rodrigo Lins); (12) An Evaluation of iPad As a Learning Tool in Higher Education within a Rural Catchment: A Case Study at a South African University (Ruth Diko Wario, Bonface Ngari Ireri and Lizette De Wet); (13) Towards a Framework to Improve the Quality of Teaching and Learning: Consciousness and Validation in Computer Engineering Science, UCT (Marcos Lévano and Andrea Albornoz); (14) MOOCs–Theoretical and Practical Aspects: Comparison of Selected Research Results: Poland, Russia, Ukraine, and Australia (Eugenia Smyrnova-Trybulska, Ewa Ogrodzka-Mazur, Anna Szafranska-Gajdzica, Nataliia Morze, Rusudan Makhachashvili, Tatiana Noskova, Tatiana Pavlova, Olga Yakovleva, Tomayess Issa and Theodora Issa); (15) Evaluating the Design and Development of an Adaptive E-Tutorial Module: A Rasch-Measurement Approach (Allaa Barefah and Elspeth McKay); (16) Analysing Students' Interactions through Social Presence and Social Network Metrics (Vanessa Cristina Martins da Silva and Sean Wolfgand Matsui Siqueira); (17) Differences between Perceived Usefulness of Social Media and Institutional Channels by Undergraduate Students (Leandro Sumida Garcia and Camila Mariane Costa Silva); (18) Integrate WeChat with Moodle to Provide a Mobile Learning Environment for Students (Zhigao Li, Yibo Fan and Jianli Jiao); (19) Scaling a Model of Teacher Professional Learning–to MOOC or Not to MOOC (Deirdre Butler, Margaret Leahy, Michael Hallissy and Mark Brown); (20) A Preliminary Study on Building an E-Education Platform for Indian School-Level Curricula (Rajeev Kumar Kanth and Mikko-Jussi Laakso); (21) Automated Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses (Dmitrii A. Ivaniushin, Dmitrii G. Shtennikov, Eugene A. Efimchick and Andrey V. Lyamin); (22) Application of Digital Cybersecurity Approaches to University Management–VFU Smart Student (Anna Nedyalkova, Teodora Bakardjieva and Krasimir Nedyalkov); (23) Developing a Technology Enhanced CSO Course for Engineering Students (Erno Lokkila, Erkki Kaila, Rolf Lindén, Mikko-Jussi Laakso and Erkki Sutinen); (24) Teaching Data Science to Post Graduate Students: A Preliminary Study Using a "F-L-I-P" Class Room Approach (Sunet Eybers and Mariè Hattingh); (25) Educational Robots in Primary School Teachers' and Students' Opinion about STEM Education for Young Learners (Eugenia Smyrnova-Trybulska, Nataliia Morze, Piet Kommers, Wojciech Zuziak and Mariia Gladun); (26) Towards the Successful Integration of Design Thinking in Industrial Design Education (Omar Mubin, Mauricio Novoa and Abdullah Al Mahmud); (27) International Study Tours: A Key to 21st Century Academic and Industry Exchanges (Ana Hol, Danielle Simiana, Gilbert Lieu, Ivan Ong, Josh Feder, Nimat Dawre and Wakil Almazi); (28) A Rethink for Computing Education for Sustainability (Samuel Mann); (29) Technical Education as a Tool for Ensuring Sustainable Development: A Case of India (Gagan Deep Sharma, Raminder Singh Uppal and Mandeep Mahendru); (30) Evaluating Eco-Innovation of OECD Countries with Data Development Analysis (Reza Kiani Mavi and Craig Standing); (31) Revealing Greenwashing: A Consumers' Perspective (Anne Brouwer); and (32) Benchmarking Anthropogenic Heavy Metals Emissions: Australian and Global Urban Environmental Health Risk Based Indicators of Sustainability (Nick Dejkovski). Short papers in these proceedings include: (1) Racing to the Future: Security in the Gigabit Race? (Mark A Gregory and Lucy Cradduck); (2) An E-Learning System with MR for Experiments Involving Circuit Construction to Control a Robot (Atsushi Takemura); (3) Simulations for Crisis Communication: The Use of Social Media (Siyoung Chung); (4) Social Networking Framework for Universities in Saudi Arabia (Sulaiman Alqahtani); (5) Rethinking E-Learning Media: What Happens When Student "Like" Meets Professor "Me"? (Stephen Arnold); (6) Telling the Story of Mindrising: Minecraft, Mindfulness and Meaningful Learning (Deirdre Butler, Mark Brown and Gar Mac Críosta); (7) Green IT Model for IT Departments in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Organisations (Abdulaziz Albahlal); (8) How Does the Use of Mobile Devices Affect Teachers' Perceptions on Mobile Learning (Dong-Joong Kim, Daesang Kim and Sang-Ho Choiv); (9) Categorizing "Others": The Segmentation of Other Actors for "Faith in Others" Efficacy (FIO) (Chi Kwan Ng and Clare D'Souza); (10) Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa (Keneilwe Munyai); and (11) New Ecological Paradigm and Sustainability Attitudes with Respect to a Multi-Cultural Educational Milieu in China (Mona Wells and Lynda Petherick). Reflection papers in these proceedings include: (1) Synthetic Biology: Knowledge Accessed by Everyone (Open Sources) (Patricia Margarita Sánchez Reyes); (2) Envisioning the City of the Future: Knowlege Societies vs. Entertainment Societies (Yolanda Alicia Villegas González); (3) Blue Ocean Strategy for Higher Education (Ricardo BraganÃßa); (4) Exploring How Digital Media Technology Can Foster Saudi EFL Students' English Language Learning (Abdulmohsin Altawil); (5) Cloud Computing in Higher Education Sector for Sustainable Development (Yuchao Duan); and (6) Exploring Connectivism in the Context of Online Social Trading (Endrit Kromidha). Posters in these proceedings include: (1) A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster (Yukiko Maruyama); (2) Effects of a Technology-Friendly Education Program on Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions and Learning Styles (Dong-Joong Kim and Sang-Ho Choi); (3) Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study (Mingming Zhou and Jing Ren); (4) Development of a Diagnostic System for Information Ethics Education (Shingo Shiota, Kyohei Sakai and Keita Kobayashi); (5) A Practical Study of Mathematics Education Using Gamification (Kyohei Sakai and Shingo Shiota); (6) Demonstrating the CollaTrEx Framework for Collaborative Context-Aware Mobile Training and Exploration (Jean Botev); (7) Development of Training/Self-Recognizing Tools for Disability Students Using a Face Expression Recognition Sensor and a Smart-Watch (Taku Kawada, Akinobu Ando, Hirotaka Saito, Jun Uekida, Nobuyuki Nagai, Hisashi Takeshima and Darold Davis); and (8) Analysis of Usage Trends of Social Media and Self-Esteem by the Rosenberg Scale (Hiroko Kanoh). Finally, one doctoral consortium is included: A Model for an Information Security Risk Management (ISRM) Framework for Saudi Arabian Organisations (Naser Alshareef). An author index is provided. Individual papers contain references.   [More]  Descriptors: Conferences (Gatherings), Foreign Countries, Internet, Educational Technology

Willis, Judith (2004). Learning and the Brain: How Administrators Can Improve Teacher Effectiveness through Instruction on How the Brain Learns, AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice. Brain-based teaching and learning focuses on how the brain learns best, and emerging brain research is a significant resource, but only if one knows how to use it as such. Teachers have the professional training and classroom experience to know first hand where there are problems in educational practices, but most teachers haven't been taught about the brain. Teacher education focuses on theories and practical applications of strategies, but rarely includes instruction on how students' brains experience learning and memory making. If teacher education included instruction in neurology, neurophysiology and neuroimaging, teaching professionals could help determine where research is needed, what research is valid and what classroom applications could be developed from valid brain-based research. In addition, the strategies that teachers have often found the most successful are likely to be the ones that can now be supported by this new research. Teachers would be able to explain to students, parents, colleagues and administrators the scientific reasons validating the techniques they use. This all serves to reflect well upon the school administrators. The best administrators are supported by and give support to the highest caliber teachers. When brain structure and function pertaining to the learning process are part of the education those teachers receive through in-service instruction or credential education, the quality of instruction and teacher confidence are both enhanced. As a demonstration of how such instruction would benefit teachers, a brief "mini-lesson" in neurology is followed by a truncated explanation of recent brain-based educational research in the field of memory. With the neurology background the reader should be empowered to comprehend the validity of the study, see the logic of some suggested classroom applications, and use his/her professional knowledge as an educator and classroom experience to design strategies suitable to his/her own needs. This article provides a sample of a well-constructed study of the actual brain activity that is taking place when memories are stored and retrieved. It is a basic primer on some of the brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology necessary to judge the validity of "scientific" claims, and hopefully it stimulates the reader to take a deeper look at this exciting dimension of the teaching profession.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Neurology, Educational Practices, Memory

Halit, Hanife; Csibra, Gergely; Volein, Agnes; Johnson, Mark H. (2004). Face-Sensitive Cortical Processing in Early Infancy, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Debates about the developmental origins of adult face processing could be directly addressed if a clear infant neural marker could be identified. Previous research with infants remains open to criticism regarding the control stimuli employed. Methods: We recorded ERPs from adults and 3-month-old infants while they watched faces and matched visual noise stimuli. Results: We observed similar amplitude enhancement for faces in the infant N290 and adult N170. In contrast, the infant P400 showed only a latency effect, making it unlikely to be the main precursor of the adult N170. Conclusions: We conclude that there is some degree of specificity of cortical processing of faces as early as 3 months of age.   [More]  Descriptors: Stimuli, Infants, Research Problems, Adults

Arthur, James, Ed.; Peterson, Andrew, Ed. (2011). The Routledge Companion to Education, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "The Routledge Companion to Education" presents the most comprehensive, up-to-date guide available to the key theories, themes and topics in education. Forty specially commissioned chapters, covering all aspects of education, introduce you to the ideas, research and issues that have shaped this most diverse, dynamic and fluid field. Part one provides an introduction to the key theories, thinkers and disciplines within education. Part two covers ideas and issues about how, what and why learning takes place. Part three includes analysis on particular approaches to education and explores the issues that attract much contemporary interest. Written by an international team of expert contributors, the chapters all include a descriptive introduction, an analysis of the key ideas and debates, an overview of the latest research, key questions for research and carefully selected further reading. "The Routledge Companion to Education" is a succinct, detailed, authoritative overview of the topics which are at the forefront of educational research and discourse today. This classic collection is a bookshelf essential for every student and scholar serious about the study of education. Part I, Educational Foundations, contains the following: (1) Liberal Education (Mulcahy); (2) Communitarianism (Arthur); (3) Civic Republicanism (Peterson); (4) Postmodernism (Peters and Besley); (5) Feminism (McLeod); (6) History of Education (Raftery); (7) Sociology of Education (Leighton); (8) Philosophy of Education (Oancea); (9) Educational Psychology (Farnan); and (10) Economics of Education (Vignoles). Part II, Teaching and Learning, contains the following: (11) Learning (Jordan and Carlile); (12) Teaching (Kyriacou); (13) Curriculum and Curriculum Studies (Connelly and Xu); (14) Language (Wilkinson and Silliman); (15) Motivation and Behaviour (Ellis and Tod); (16) Creativity (Shaheen); and (17 ) Assessment (Ecclestone). Part III, Organisation and Issues in Education, contains the following: (18) Early Childhood Education and Care (Powell); Education and Schooling 5-11 Years (Bryan); (20) Education and Schooling 11-16 Years (Peterson and Leighton); (21) Post-Compulsory, Higher Education and Training (Bowl); (22) Lifelong Learning (Jarvis); (23) Alternative Education (Warwick); (24) Citizenship Education (Davies); (25) Social Class (Davison); (26) Comparative Education (Schweisfurth); (27) Development Education (Bourn); (28) Cultural-Linguistic Diversity and Inclusion (Wilkinson, Silliman and Danzak); (29) Education and Neuroscience (Tommerdahl); (30) Gender (Sundaram); (31) Globalization (Peim); (32) Well-being and Education (Ecclestone); (33) Leadership and School Effectiveness (Rhodes and Bischoff); (34) Multicultural Education (Kiwan); (35) Education Policy (West); (36) Religion and Education (Sears and Christou); (37) Social Justice and Inequalities in Education (Smith); (38) Sustainable Development (Huckle); (39) Technologies and Learning (Hammond); and (40) Values Education (Lovat).   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Social Class, Nontraditional Education, Multicultural Education

Beitzel, Brian D.; Derry, Sharon J. (2009). When the Book Is Better than the Movie: How Contrasting Video Cases Influence Text Learning, Journal of Educational Computing Research. Video usage in educational contexts is on the rise. We examined 3 alternative theories about cognitive mechanisms of learning and their implications for instructional design when video is employed to enhance text-based learning. Hypothesis-testing procedures followed a falsificationist approach, grounded in philosophy of science literature. Undergraduate students acquired learning-science concepts through web-based activities that involved studying reading material. Participants contrasted video cases "before" reading in one experimental condition, and "after" reading in another. Participants in a control condition read the same texts but saw no video cases. Recall results after a 2-day delay favored the instructional design in which video cases were contrasted "after" reading a text, consistent with a schema-elaboration hypothesis.   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Instructional Design, Reading Materials, Internet

Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Watts, Mary, Ed. (2011). The Routledge International Handbook of Learning. Routledge International Handbooks of Education, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. As our understanding of learning focuses on the whole person rather than individual aspects of learning, so the process of learning is beginning to be studied from a wide variety of perspectives and disciplines. This handbook presents a comprehensive overview of the contemporary research into learning: it brings together a diverse range of specialties with chapters written by leading scholars throughout the world from a wide variety of different approaches. The International Handbook of Learning captures the complexities of the learning process in seven major parts. Its 55 chapters are sub-divided in seven parts: (1) Learning and the person: senses, cognitions, emotions, personality traits and learning styles; (2) Learning across the lifespan; (3) Life-wide learning; (4) Learning across the disciplines: covering everything from anthropology to neuroscience; (5) Meaning systems' interpretation; (6) Learning and disability; and (7) Historical and contemporary learning theorists. Written by international experts, this book is the first comprehensive multi-disciplinary analysis of learning, packing a diverse collection of research into one accessible volume. Part I, Learning and the Person, contains the following: (1) Learning and the Senses (Paul Martin and Viv Martin); (2) Learning Cognitions/Cognitive Learning/Learning and Cognition (Knud Illeris); (3) Learning a Role: Becoming a Nurse (Michelle Camilleri); (4) Self-Constructed Activity, Work Analysis, and Occupational Training: an Approach to Learning Objects for Adults (Marc Durand); (5) Emotional Intelligence (Betty Rudd); (6) Language and Learning (Bernard Camilleri); (7) Gender and Learning–Feminist Perspectives (Julia Preece); (8) Identity and Learning (Lyn Tett); (9) Thinking Styles and Learning (Li-Fang Zhang); and (10) Non-Learning (Peter Jarvis). Part II, Learning Across the Life-Span, contains the following: (11) Learning in Early Childhood (Christine Stephen); (12) The School Years (Kristiina Kumpulainen); (13) Crossing boundaries: Harnessing Funds of Knowledge in Dialogic Inquiry across Formal and Informal Learning Environments (Lasse Lipponen); (14) Young People and Learning (Rachel Brooks); (15) Adult Learning: Andragogy versus Pedagogy or from Pedagogy to Andragogy (Peter Jarvis); (16) Exploring Learning in Midlife (Jo-Anne H. Willment); (17) The Older Adult in Education (Mary Alice Wolf); (18) Lifelong Learning in Long-Term Care Settings (Alexandra Withnall); (19) The Biographical Approach to Lifelong Learning (Peter Alheit); (20) Learning from our Lives (John Field); (21) Psychological Development (Mark Tennant); and (22) Transformative Learning (Patricia Cranton and Edward W. Taylor). Part III, Learning Sites, contains the following: (23) Informal Learning–Everyday Living (Paul Hager); (24) Self-Directed Learning (Katarina Popovic); (25) Learning at the Site of Work (Stephen Billett); (26) Organisational Learning won't be Turned off (Bente Elkjaer); (27) E-learning (m-learning) (Susannah Quinsee); (28) Sleep-dependent Learning (Daan R. van der Veen and Simon N. Archer); (29) Learning and Violence (Shahrzad Mojab and Bethany J. Osborne); and (30) Aesthetic Education (Lars Ilum). Part IV, Learning and Disability, contains the following: (31) Learning, Sensory Impairment Physical Disability (Joanna Beazley Richards); (32) Autism Spectruitions and Learning (Mary Watts); (33) Reading Disability (Julian G. Elliott and Elena L. Grigorenko); and (34) On Becoming a Person in Society: the Person with Dementia (Kay de Vries). Part V, Learning across the Disciplines "Human and Social Sciences", contains the following: (35) Human-centric Learning and Post-human Experimentation (Richard Edwards); (36) Piaget's Constructivism and Adult Learning (Etienne Bourgeois); (37) Psychoanalytic Perspectives on Learning and the Subject called the Learner (Linden West); (38) Sociology and Learning (Martin Dyke and Ian Bryant); (39) Anthropology and Learning (Peggy Froerer); (40) Learning in a Complex World (Mark Olssen); (41) Perspectives on Geography and Learning (Johanna L. Waters); (42) Learning as a Microhistorical Process (Christina Toren Natural Sciences); (43) Evolution (Ian Abrahams and Michael Reiss); (44) The Brain and Learning (John Stein); (45) Cognitive Neurophysiology–Promoting Neuroergonomics of Learning (Anu Holm and Kiti Muller); (46) Pharmacology and Learning (Roberta Stasyk). Part VI, Learning and Religious and Meaning Systems, contains the following: (47) Buddhist Theory of Education (Caroline Brazier and David Brazier); (48) Christianity (Jeff Astley); (49) The Confucian Learning: Learning to Become Fully Human (Qi Sun); (50) Exploring Aspects of Learning in Hindu Philosophy (Prem Kumar); and (51) Learning Within Context of Faith and the Intellect: a Thinking Islam (Naznin Hirji). Part VII, Geographic Cultural Systems–Broader Perspectives, contains the following: (52) Jewish Ways of Learning (Gabriela Ruppin-Shand and Michael Shire); (53) Remodelling Learning on an African Cultural Heritage of Ubuntu (Rebecca Nthogo Lekoko and Oitshepile MmaB Modise); (54) Indian Culture and Learning (Sunil Behari Mohanty); (55) The Challenges of Adult Learning in Latin America: from Literacy to Lifelong Learning (Tim Ireland).   [More]  Descriptors: Learning, Perception, Cognitive Processes, Nurses

Blessing, Stephen B.; Gilbert, Stephen B.; Ourada, Stephen; Ritter, Steven (2009). Authoring Model-Tracing Cognitive Tutors, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) that employ a model-tracing methodology have consistently shown their effectiveness. However, what evidently makes these tutors effective, the cognitive model embedded within them, has traditionally been difficult to create, requiring great expertise and time, both of which come at a cost. Furthermore, an interface has to be constructed that communicates with the cognitive model. Together these constitute a high bar that needs to be crossed in order to create such a tutor. We outline a system that lowers this bar on both accounts and that has been used to produce commercial-quality tutors. First, we discuss and evaluate a tool that allows authors who are not cognitive scientists or programmers to create a cognitive model. Second, we detail a way for this cognitive model to communicate with third-party interfaces.   [More]  Descriptors: Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Cognitive Processes, Models, Expertise

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 116 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include James L. McClelland, J. D. Hollan, Seth Chaiklin, Marlene Scardamalia, Francois Grosjean, Carl Martin Allwood, Paul Smolensky, Jeff Miller, Edwin L. Hutchins, and James Paul Gee.

Hollan, J. D.; And Others (1986). Graphical Interfaces for Simulation. This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design are discussed. Detailed descriptions of the following tools, which have been used extensively in the development of an interactive inspectable simulation-based instructional system, Steamer, are presented: (1) simulation environment; (2) model control; (3) graphics editor; (4) icon editor; and (5) knowledge-base editors, including a knowledge-editor and grapher, lesson editor, behavior editor, and designer. Numerous graphic illustrations are provided; references and a distribution list are also included. Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Computer Graphics, Computer Simulation, Courseware

Norman, Donald A.; Hutchins, Edwin L., Jr. (1988). Computation via Direct Manipulation. Final Report. This synthesis of the research on direct manipulation interfaces explores the nature of directness in computer interfaces and demonstrates that the concept of directness is complex, including two gulfs–for execution and evaluation–and two kinds of mappings–semantic mappings and referential distance. Examination of the complexities of the differences among interface styles shows the importance of visibility and sound in the performance of tasks, and a detailed analysis of the general attributes of cognitive artifacts is presented, including a new theoretical construct, the object-symbol. These analyses allow for a deeper understanding of the differences among existing human-machine interfaces and provide the background for the development of a new class of interfaces that promise superior performance. Twenty-four references are listed, and a draft checklist for the design of an artifact is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Auditory Stimuli, Check Lists, Cognitive Processes

California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla. Inst. for Cognitive Science. (1984). User Centered System Design. Part II: Collected Papers from the UCSD HMI Project. This report is a collection of 11 recent papers by the Human-Machine Interaction Group at the University of California, San Diego. The following papers are included: (1) "Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction," Donald A. Norman; (2) "The Nature of Expertise in UNIX," Stephen W. Draper; (3) "Users in the Real World," David Owen; (4) "Constructive Interaction: A Method for Studying User-Computer-User Interaction," Claire O'Malley, Stephen W. Draper, and Mary S. Riley; (5) "Formalizing Task Descriptions for Command Specification and Documentation," Paul Smolensky, Melissa L. Monty, and Eileen Conway; (6) "Problems in Evaluation of Human-Computer Interfaces: A Case Study," Liam J. Bannon and Claire O'Malley; (7) "Planning Nets: A Framework for Analyzing User-Computer Interactions," Mary S. Riley and Claire O'Malley; (8) "Activity Scripts," Allen Cypher; (9) "DESCRIBE: Environments for Specifying Commands and Retrieving Information by Elaboration," Steven L. Greenspan and Paul Smolensky; (10) "Caveats on the Use of Expert Systems," Liam J. Bannon; and (11) "Software Engineering for User Interfaces," Stephen W. Draper and Donald A. Norman. Each paper includes an abstract and a reference list. Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Computer Oriented Programs, Computer Software, Computers

Elman, Jeffery Locke; Zipser, David (1987). Learning the Hidden Structure of Speech. The back-propagation neural network learning procedure was applied to the analysis and recognition of speech. Because this learning procedure requires only examples of input-output pairs, it is not necessary to provide it with any initial description of speech features. Rather, the network develops on its own set of representational features during the course of learning. A series of computer simulation studies were conducted to assess the ability of these networks to label sounds accurately, to learn to recognize sounds without labels, and to learn feature representations of continuous speech. The studies demonstrated that the networks can learn to label presegmented naive sound tokens with accuracies of up to 95%. Networks trained on segmented sounds using a strategy that requires no external labels were able to recognize and delineate sounds in continuous speech. These networks developed rich internal representations that included units that corresponded to such traditional distinctions as vowels and consonants, as well as units that were sensitive to novel and nonstandard features. Networks trained on a large corpus of unsegmented, continuous speech without labels also developed interesting feature representations that may be useful in both segmentation and label learning. The results of the studies, while preliminary, demonstrate that back-propagation learning can be used with complex, natural data to identify a feature structure that can serve as the basis for both analysis and nontrivial pattern recognition. Descriptors: Articulation (Speech), Artificial Speech, Communication Research, Computers

Chaiklin, Seth (1984). On the Nature of Verbal Rules and Their Role in Problem Solving, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. This theoretical analysis articulates verbal rule properties and use implications, describes an empirical study examining characteristics of problem solving performance when verbal rules are instructed as a problem solving method, and discusses role of verbal rules in problem solving and implications for learning procedural skills. Descriptors: Arithmetic, Definitions, Learning, Performance

Navon, David; Miller, Jeff (1986). The Role of Outcome Conflict in Dual-Task Interference. ICS Report 8601. The traditional explanation for dual-task interference is that tasks compete for scarce processing resources. Another possible explanation is that the outcome of the processing required for one task conflicts with the processing required for the other task. To explore the contribution of outcome conflict to task interference, this paper describes two experiments with college undergraduates that manipulate the relatedness of tasks. Experiment 1 found that the difficulty of the individual tasks is not the only determinant of how much they will interfere when combined, and that there must be substantial interactions between processes carrying out the two tasks. Experiment 2 found that although between-category search was more efficient than within-category search in single tasks, it was less efficient in dual tasks. There appears to be significant task interactions due to the confusability emerging when the nontargets of one task belong to the same category as the targets of the concurrent task. In addition, the congruence of target presence or absence on the two channels was found to have a sizeable effect. Four potential sources of outcome conflict are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Conflict, Higher Education, Performance Factors

Smolensky, Paul (1983). Harmony Theory: A Mathematical Framework for Stochastic Parallel Processing. This paper presents preliminary results of research founded on the hypothesis that in real environments there exist regularities that can be idealized as mathematical structures that are simple enough to be analyzed. The author considered three steps in analyzing the encoding of modularity of the environment. First, a general information processing task for a cognitive system, "completion," is described. Second, the entities of schemas for encoding the environmental modules and how they are used by the cognitive system to perform its task are discussed. Finally, a criterion for how the encoding of the environment into schemas should be done is presented. The paper is divided into sections on Completions and Schemas, Harmony and Computational Temperature, Cooling the System, Cognitive Crystallization, Schema Selection, Perceptual Grouping, Rules versus Instances, and Higher Level Analyses. An appendix presents the Formal Framework of Harmony Theory. A list of other reports and personnel is also included. Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Structures, Computer Simulation, Environment

Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup (1997). Co-ordinating Co-operation in Complex Information Flows: A Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Description of Competence-determined Leadership. No. 61. "Scanator" (a modern, ecological psychophysics encompassing a cohesive set of theories and methods for the study of mental functions) provides the basis for a study of "competence," the capacity for making sense in complex situations. The paper develops a functional model that forms a theoretical expression of the phenomenon of leadership. The essential reasoning underlying this work is that organizing principles, and coordinating cooperation in particular, which are known at the biological level, can be transferred to the psychological level to make the phenomenon of leadership intelligible. The mental expression of competence, the holophor, can by means of Scanator, be described topologically as a cohesive set of stable attractors which encompass information in the form of ideas. It is the coordination of the holophors created through competence which forms the basis for understanding the concept of leadership. The coordination process (coordinating cooperation) is analyzed as an innovative searching process, which aims at establishing a stable state: the superholophor. A series of hypotheses are postulated concerning the functional nature of leadership. A small-scale empirical investigation of cooperation between two college students was undertaken. Prior to the commencement of their cooperation, the students were asked to describe their expectations of the cooperation, which they were subsequently similarly asked to describe. Results support the theory postulated–the expectation holophor of one student is embedded in the cooperation holophor of the other, and vice versa. Contains 23 references and 21 figures of data.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Psychology, Competence, Foreign Countries, Higher Education

Elman, Jeffrey L.; McClelland, James L. (1983). Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model. Research efforts to model speech perception in terms of a processing system in which knowledge and processing are distributed over large numbers of highly interactive–but computationally primative–elements are described in this report. After discussing the properties of speech that demand a parallel interactive processing system, the report reviews both psycholinguistic and machine-based attempts to model speech perception. It then presents the results of a computer simulation of one version of an interactive activation model of speech, based loosely on the COHORT model, devised by W. D. Marslen-Wilson and Welsh (1978), which is capable of word recognition and phonemic restoration without depending on preliminary segmentation of the input into phonemes. The report then notes the deficiences of this model, among them its excessive sensitivity to speech rate and its dependence on accurate information about word beginnings. It also describes the TRACE model, which is designed to address these deficiencies, noting that it allows interactive activation processes to take place within a structure that serves as a dynamic working memory. The report points out that this structure permits the model to capture contextual influence in which the perception of a portion of the input stream is influenced by what follows it as well as by what precedes it in the speech signal.   [More]  Descriptors: Articulation (Speech), Auditory Perception, Cognitive Processes, Communication Research

Allwood, Carl Martin (1984). Error Detection Processes in Problem Solving, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Describes a study which analyzed problem solvers' error detection processes by instructing subjects to think aloud when solving statistical problems. Effects of evaluative episodes on error detection, detection of different error types, error detection processes per se, and relationship of error detection behavior to problem-solving proficiency are discussed. Descriptors: Behavioral Science Research, Cognitive Style, Correlation, Error Patterns

Hutchins, Edwin (1987). Mediation and Automatization. This paper discusses the relationship between the mediation of task performance by some structure that is not inherent in the task domain itself and the phenomenon of automatization, in which skilled performance becomes effortless or phenomenologically "automatic" after extensive practice. The use of a common simple explicit mediating device, a checklist, is described in detail. It is assumed that all skilled performances are initially mediated by some structure, either internal or external, and that the terms in the mediating structure provide constraints that can be used to evaluate behavior for its appropriateness. A parallel distributed processing (or "connectionist") view of cognition would lead us to expect that, as a consequence of repeated mediated task performance, a learning network will learn the sequence of states that constitute the task, and with sufficient practice may be able to move through them without the application of the constraints provided by the mediating structure. It is argued that this condition of no-longer-mediated performance is precisely what has been seen as automatized performances, and that the changes that obviate the need for mediation are the processes underlying the development of skill automatization. Descriptors: Adults, Artificial Intelligence, Check Lists, Cognitive Processes

Gee, James Paul; Grosjean, Francois (1984). Empirical Evidence for Narrative Structure, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Used experimental tasks–spontaneous telling of a story, reading, and parsing–to determine whether empirical data reflect narrative structure of stories. It was concluded that spontaneous pausing reflects the narrative structure and can be used as a guide to constructing theories of narrative structure and deciding between competing theories. Descriptors: Data Analysis, Literature Reviews, Models, Narration

Scardamalia, Marlene; And Others (1984). Teachability of Reflective Processes in Written Composition, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Describes an instructional experiment aimed at helping sixth-graders sustain reflective thought processes in composition independently. Instruction included modeling of thinking aloud, clue use stimulating self-questioning, and direct strategy instruction emphasizing dialectical synthesis of conflicting ideas. Results indicate gains were made at level of reflection on individual ideas. Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Conceptual Tempo, Educational Research, Elementary Education

Jordan, Michael I. (1986). Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach. Human behavior shows a variety of serially ordered action sequences. This paper presents a theory of serial order which describes how sequences of actions might be learned and performed. In this theory, parallel interactions across time (coarticulation) and parallel interactions across space (dual-task interference) are viewed as two aspects of a common underlying process. It describes a dynamical system which is embodied as a "parallel distributed processing" or "connectionist" network. The trajectories of this dynamical system come to follow desired paths corresponding to particular action sequences as a result of a learning process during which constraints are imposed on the system. These constraints enforce sequentiality where necessary, and as they are relaxed, performance becomes more parallel. The theory is applied to the problem of coarticulation in speech production and simulation experiments are presented. Descriptors: Algorithms, Epistemology, Language Patterns, Language Processing

Kieras, David E.; Bovair, Susan (1984). The Role of a Mental Model in Learning to Operate a Device, Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence, Psychology and Language. Describes three studies concerned with learning to operate a control panel device and how this learning is affected by understanding a device model that describes its internal mechanism. Results indicate benefits of a device model depend on whether it supports direct inference of exact steps required to operate the device. Descriptors: Diagrams, Epistemology, Learning Processes, Mechanical Equipment

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 115 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John West-Burnham, Richard Churches, Claire M. A. Haworth, Robert Plomin, Claudine M. Costich, Michael C. Mozer, Nicole Harlaar, Jennifer E. Charles, Gozde Duran, and Namik Kemal Sahbaz.

Scheessele, Michael R. (2007). The Two Cultures: A Zero-Sum Game?, Forum on Public Policy Online. In "The two cultures and the scientific revolution," C.P. Snow (1959) described the chasm between pure and applied science, on the one hand, and the arts and humanities, on the other. Snow was concerned that the complete lack of understanding between these "two cultures" would hamper the spread of the scientific/industrial revolution from rich nations to poor. Because of his conviction that this revolution had made lives longer and more comfortable for people of developed nations, he forcefully argued that the two intellectual cultures must be bridged–the sooner the better. The gap between these two cultures, of course, still exists. Meanwhile, the arts are neglected in primary and secondary schools. Further, the science vocabulary of adults in the U.S. appears to be so poor that a scientific theory is considered suspect simply because it is "just a theory". Such problems may create increased competition between the two cultures. A probable result would be short-sighted prescriptive measures that are at best worthless and at worst dangerous to the mission of bridging the two cultures. A better approach may be to examine interdisciplinary fields where this gap seems less wide, for clues to a bridge.   [More]  Descriptors: Culture, Sciences, Art, Humanities

Kobayashi, Tessei; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu (2005). Auditory-Visual Intermodal Matching of Small Numerosities in 6-Month-Old Infants, Developmental Science. Recent studies have reported that preverbal infants are able to discriminate between numerosities of sets presented within a particular modality. There is still debate, however, over whether they are able to perform intermodal numerosity matching, i.e. to relate numerosities of sets presented with different sensory modalities. The present study investigated auditory-visual intermodal matching of small numerosities in infancy by using a violation-of-expectation paradigm. After being familiarized with events of a few objects impacting a surface successively, 6-month-old infants were alternatively presented with two and three tones while the movement of each object remained hidden behind an opaque screen. The screen was then removed to reveal either two or three objects. Results showed that the infants looked significantly longer at the numerically nonequivalent events (the three-tone/two-object and the two-tone/three-object events) than at the numerically equivalent events (the two-tone/two-object and the three-tone/three-object events) irrespective of the rate or duration of auditory tones presented. These findings suggest that infants are capable of performing intermodal matching of small numerosities and that they might possess abstract representations of numerosity beyond sensory modalities.   [More]  Descriptors: Infants, Expectation, Visual Perception, Auditory Perception

Churches, Richard; West-Burnham, John (2008). Leading Learning through Relationships: The Implications of Neuro-linguistic Programming for Personalisation and the Children's Agenda in England. Research Paper, Online Submission. This paper discusses research and thinking on the importance of interpersonal and intrapersonal effectiveness for teachers, school leaders and school improvement, and explores implications of the use of NLP in relation to personalisation and the children's agenda. It outlines initial research carried out as part of the Fast Track Teaching programme (the UK government accelerated leadership development programme) and on the London Leadership Strategy and makes suggestions for further research. Two appendices are included: (1) Content analysis of suggestions for use of NLP in teaching and school leadership (n. 380 teachers); and (2) Core content knowledge covered in the INLPTA Diploma Level training.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Change, Foreign Countries, Content Analysis, Instructional Leadership

Gr ver Aukrust, Vibeke, Ed. (2011). Learning and Cognition, Elsevier. This collection of 58 articles from the recently-published third edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education focuses on learning, memory, attention, problem solving, concept formation, and language. Learning and cognition is the foundation of cognitive psychology and encompasses many topics including attention, memory, categorization, etc. Most books in the area either focus on one subtopic in-depth (e.g. an entire book on memory) or cover the gamut of subjects in a series of long, technical handbook-like chapters. This concise reference offers researchers and professors teaching in the area a new take on the material that is comprehensive in breadth, but lighter in depth–focusing on main findings, established facts, and minimizing the amount of space taken up by large, multi-volume references.   [More]  Descriptors: Memory, Concept Formation, Cognitive Psychology, Problem Solving

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2006). Nebraska Policymakers Reach Consensus on Early Childhood Legislation, Based on Recent Scientific Findings. Perspectives. A case study of Nebraska early childhood legislation, passed unanimously in 2005, shows the role of science in effective policymaking. By combining citizen advocacy, skillful work by legislators, and testimony by local experts as well as national scientists, Nebraska succeeded in producing bipartisan consensus on the importance of early childhood education and development. Legislators determined that the goals of supporting children and achieving high economic and social returns for public funds can both be served by investing in early childhood programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Legislators, Young Children, Advocacy

Hutchins, Edwin (1987). Metaphors for Interface Design. This discussion of the utilization by computer designers and users of metaphors as organizing structures for dealing with the complexity of behavior of human/computer interfaces begins by identifying three types of metaphor that describe various aspects of human-computer interface design, i.e., activity, mode of interaction, and task domain. The primary focus of this paper is four metaphors for the mode of interaction: (1) conversation, in which the interface is an implied intermediary between the user and the world in which actions are taken; (2) declarations, which change the world they refer to by changing the agreement under which something does or does not exist; (3) model world, in which expressions in the interface language appear as actions with causal force in the world of interest and the generation of expressions is constrained so that it is not possible to compose an expression that cannot be realized in the world of interest; and (4) collaborative manipulation, in which the conversation and model-world interfaces are combined. The discussion shows how mode of interaction metaphors are essential to the user's interpretation of the behavior of the interface; how interface designers encourage particular metaphorical interpretations of the interfaces they design; and how the choice of metaphor has important consequences for both the designers and the users of interfaces. Seventeen references are provided. Descriptors: Computers, Interaction, Language Processing, Man Machine Systems

Schiferl, E. I. (2007). Bridging the Two Cultures: Disciplinary Divides and Educational Reward Systems, Forum on Public Policy Online. In 1959 C.P. Snow believed that communication and education could span the cultural gap between the sciences and the humanities. In the twenty-first century, language, research models, and academic structures hinder intellectual communication between art history, cognitive neuroscience and perceptual psychology–three disciplines dedicated to researching vision and visualization. Multiple definitions of basic words such as image, perception, and perspective invite confusion and differences in professional tone can lead to misinterpretation about the validity of research. Standards of evidence vary according to assumptions about what is real, such as the use of photographs in brain scan research to study visual responses to physical objects. However the reward system of universities creates barriers that are harder to surmount than disciplinary differences. American universities promote interdisciplinary research in theory, but in practice faculty evaluation reinforces disciplines by following a vertical path from the department to the administration. Universities prioritize original research delivered in conventional text publications and devalue research, original or synthetic, that aims for an audience beyond fellow academics. Ironically, universities tend to denigrate "educational" publications and the lower the age of the audience, the less value accorded the research. This creates another cultural divide where interdisciplinary concepts long rejected in the face of academic research persist in K-12 education and popular culture. Examples include Betty Edward's "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain" and Jean Piaget's developmental model of children's art that associates western linear perspective in art with maturity.   [More]  Descriptors: Interdisciplinary Approach, Art History, Neurosciences, Cognitive Science

Winters, Fielding I.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Costich, Claudine M. (2008). Self-Regulation of Learning within Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Critical Analysis, Educational Psychology Review. Computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) present important opportunities for fostering learning; however, studies have shown that students have difficulty when learning with these environments. Research has identified that students' self-regulatory learning (SRL) processes may mediate the hypothesized positive relations between CBLEs and academic performance. In this review, we identified 33 empirical studies of SRL and CBLEs. We address three research questions: (1) How do learner and task characteristics relate to students' SRL with CBLEs? (2) Can various learning supports or conditions enhance the quality of students' SRL as they learn with CBLEs? (3) What conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues exist for this growing area of research? We found evidence that specific SRL processes are more often associated with academic success than others and that SRL skills can be supported. We also identified a number of issues that researchers should aim to address in future investigations, including a more comprehensive measurement of facets of SRL and the quality of SRL processes, the seeming disconnect between SRL processes and learning outcomes, and the distinction between self- and other-regulation.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Needs, Academic Achievement, Educational Technology, Computer Assisted Instruction

Moulson, Margaret C.; Westerlund, Alissa; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A. (2009). The Effects of Early Experience on Face Recognition: An Event-Related Potential Study of Institutionalized Children in Romania, Child Development. Data are reported from 3 groups of children residing in Bucharest, Romania. Face recognition in currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized, and never-institutionalized children was assessed at 3 time points: preintervention (n = 121), 30 months of age (n = 99), and 42 months of age (n = 77). Children watched photographs of caregiver and stranger faces while event-related potentials were recorded. Results demonstrate that institutionalized children show pervasive cortical hypoarousal in response to faces and that foster care is somewhat effective in remediating this deficit by 42 months of age. All 3 groups of children distinguished between the familiar and unfamiliar faces. These results have the potential to inform an understanding of the role of early experience in the development of the neural systems that subserve face recognition.   [More]  Descriptors: Nonverbal Communication, Foreign Countries, Early Experience, Foster Care

Bierschenk, Inger (1997). Discovery of Competence at the Edge of Literature and Society. This article presents a competence-oriented experiment on the comprehension of ideas in modern literature. Comprehension is defined as being indicative of competence as opposed to qualification. Participants were 117 students from various educational programs in a Swedish gymnasium course on modern literature and society. Students were exposed to three videotaped projections of model societies on two occasions. They then responded to 15 propositions about the quality of life in the proposed societies using an instrument that measured competence of civilization through two factors, eigenvalues (F1) and visibility of social texture (F2). The model societies represent three dimensions of ideas connected to three scientific paradigms: affinity, structure, and process. These dimensions had been related and discussed in conjunction with the literary and cultural concepts of behaviorism, structuralism, and functionalism. Before the participants' second exposure to the video, they were given a recognition test in which they were asked to react to 15 ideas, each of which described an idea discussed. According to the analysis of variance there is a significant degree of difficulty in the ideas but no difference at all between the classes. The degree of difficulty was used to establish a super-ordinal scale that measures comprehension of ideas linked to the cultural dimensions of society. The values on the F1 and F2 competence factors were filtered through the values on the literary scale, making the dimensions of the model societies that describe degrees of competence apparent. These results show that literature is an instrument for perceiving the disparity of a society and for developing competence, provided that its basic idea is transparent. (Contains 6 tables, 3 figures, and 16 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Comprehension, Foreign Countries, High School Students

Sahbaz, Namik Kemal; Duran, Gozde (2011). The Efficiency of Cluster Method in Improving the Creative Writing Skill of 6th Grade Students of Primary School, Educational Research and Reviews. The aim of this research is to search the effect of the cluster method on the creative writing skill of 6th grade students. In this paper, the students of 6-A, studying at Ulas Primary School in 2010-2011 academic year, were divided into two groups as experiment and control. Taking into consideration the various variants, pre-test and last-test were applied at the beginning and at the final process. These tests were compared according to the number of the words in written texts, actual and figurative usage of words, the usage of proverb-idiom, slip in spelling and the relation with the context. At the end of the search, the group which used the cluster method in creative writing studies was more successful than control group on academic success in writing skill.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Control Groups, Experimental Groups, Pretests Posttests

Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert (2007). Reading and Generalist Genes, Mind, Brain, and Education. Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading ability in a study of 4,258 7-year-old children that screened 100,000 SNPs. Using the same sample, we show that this early reading SNP set also correlates with other aspects of literacy, components of mathematics, and more general cognitive abilities. These results provide support for the generalist genes hypothesis. Although the effect size of the current SNP set is small, such SNP sets could eventually be used to predict genetic risk for learning disabilities as well as to prescribe genetically tailored intervention and prevention programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Reading, Prevention, Learning Disabilities, Genetics

Robinson, Kathy (2010). Students' Appraisal of Emotional and Relational Experience whilst Collaborating Online Using Text Based Communication, Computers & Education. The impacts that the lack of physical cues and non-verbal cues of emotional expression has on the student learning experience in text based online environments were targeted separately in this study. A questionnaire was constructed with separate items for non-verbal cues of emotional expression and cues to physical identity. The survey also included questions about students' previous experience with technology and collaboration, and their motivations for undertaking the course. Views about their interactions with other students were also sought. The responses of 256 students who had undertaken a text based online course where collaboration was a mandatory requirement were collected and subsequently analysed using cluster analysis. Four distinct cohorts of students were identified. Using a conceptual approach borrowed from neuroscience, modularity, it has been possible to encapsulate the effects of three distinct aspects of collaborating in text based online contexts, lack of cues to physical identity, lack of cues to emotional expression and interaction experience. These aspects were analysed alongside the student profiles for each of the four cohorts. The findings indicate that the external factors that an individual student brings to a learning context can impact on the learning experience. Neuroscientifically based knowledge that is relevant for the findings of the survey are identified and considered in terms of the questions raised from an interdisciplinary perspective.   [More]  Descriptors: Cues, Online Courses, Cooperation, Multivariate Analysis

Reeve, Charlie L.; Charles, Jennifer E. (2008). Survey of Opinions on the Primacy of "g" and Social Consequences of Ability Testing: A Comparison of Expert and Non-Expert Views, Intelligence. The current study examines the views of experts in the science of mental abilities about the primacy and uniqueness of "g" and the social implications of ability testing, and compares their responses to the views of a group of non-expert psychologists. Results indicate expert consensus that "g" is an important, non-trivial determinant (or at least predictor) of important real world outcomes for which there is no substitute, and that tests of "g" are valid and generally free from racial bias. Experts did not reach consensus on issues such as the degree to which specific abilities or combinations of non-cognitive traits can yield predictive validities comparable to that of "g" alone, the predictive validity of "g" for non-technical work outcomes (e.g., contextual performance), and the nature and implications of race differences in intelligence. Second, a comparison of responses from experts and a group of applied psychologists reveals several discrepant beliefs between these groups, primarily dealing with the primacy of "g," susceptibility of ability tests to racial bias, and the potential value of ability testing. Results are discussed in terms of directions for future research and shared responsibility for various groups of researchers to enhance dissemination of research to relevant audiences.   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Psychologists, Testing, Predictive Validity

Mozer, Michael C. (1984). Inductive Information Retrieval Using Parallel Distributed Computation. This paper reports on an application of parallel models to the area of information retrieval and argues that massively parallel, distributed models of computation, called connectionist, or parallel distributed processing (PDP) models, offer a new approach to the representation and manipulation of knowledge. Although this document focuses on information retrieval systems used in bibliographic searching, known as document retrieval systems, the discussion generalizes quite readily to broader applications of information retrieval. The retrieval system described makes dynamic use of the internal structure of a database to infer relationships among items in the database. Using these relationships, the system can help overcome incompleteness and imprecision in requests for information, as well as in the database itself. The appendix to this report is a summary of activation rules and parameter values of the test system. Descriptors: Bibliographic Coupling, Computer Software, Databases, Induction

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 114 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Bernard Bierschenk, Dorian Friedman, Daniel S. Pine, Ole Elstrup Rasmussen, Stephen R. Campbell, Eric E. Nelson, Amanda E. Guyer, O. Arda Cimen, Erin B. McClure-Tone, and Bernhard Bierschenk.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1993). An Experimental Approach to the Functional Analysis of Text Building Behaviour. Part I. The Verbal Flow. No. 47. This presentation is based on a method for analyzing the verbal flow in text-building behavior. The method is called Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). It locates and makes use of the discontinuities in produced text. Its task is to characterize the mechanism that governs language production and to foster an understanding of the actual processes of movement in language. The study of this phenomenon is founded on the experimental conditions provided by the famous Visual Cliff. It is assumed that informational invariants are established through the production of experimental text. Through the behavioral dynamics produced by four experimental subjects, the metrical structure of the coordinates of a language space has been established. Furthermore, it is shown that kinetic properties, like velocity and direction, of a verbal flow can be measured and represented by means of a simple regression analysis. Its slope coefficient gives expression to the degree of deviation in the curvature of the measured space. The results of the regression analysis are represented in a log-by-log plot. This plot shows that the verbal flows of the studied systems are characterized by highly similar kinetic properties. An appendix highly similar flow-field as well as translations in English, French, and German. (Contains 26 references, 3 figures, and 3 tables.)   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Information Transfer, Language Proficiency, Languages

Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed. (2012). Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates, Brookes Publishing Company. Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings first reported at the Dyslexia Foundation's 12th Extraordinary Brain Symposium, this landmark volume collects cutting-edge dyslexia research from the worlds foremost experts on this complex disorder, as well as insights from experts newly interested in applying their innovative techniques to dyslexia research. 40+ international contributors from multiple disciplines present groundbreaking research on: (1) neurolinguistic and neurophysiological precursors of dyslexia; (2) new techniques and technologies–ranging from molecular genetics, to neuroimaging, to cognitive neuroscience; (3) genetic influences on reading and reading disability; (4) the magnocellular theory of dyslexia; (5) anatomical risk factors for reading and language disorders; (6) subcortical auditory function and how it contributes to variance in reading ability; (7) cortical phenotypes associated with developmental dyslexia; (8) the impact of atypical auditory processing in infancy on later language and reading skills; (9) the interplay among environment, brain, and behavior while children are developing reading skills; (10) phonological processing difficulties and their effect on later literacy outcomes; (11) the latest techniques in pediatric neuroimaging and more. Each of the book's four sections has a helpful integrative introduction. And to help readers shape the course of future dyslexia studies, a concluding chapter distills the key themes discussed at the symposium and examines specific recommendations for further research on the genetics, neurobiology, and behavior of dyslexia. An important volume that will be cited and quoted in the literature for years to come, this book sheds new light on the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia–and will provide a strong foundation for tomorrow's innovative interventions. Part I, Brain Development, Genes, and Behavior Phenotypes, begins with an introduction by R. Holly Fitch and contains the following: (1) Overview of Early Brain Development: Linking Genetics to Brain Structure (Richard S. Nowakowski & Nancy L. Hayes); (2) Loss of the Dyslexia Susceptibility Gene DCDC2 Increases Synaptic Connectivity in the Mouse Neocortex (Joseph LoTurco, Aarti Tarkar, & Alicia Yue Che); (3) The Magnocellular Theory of Dyslexia (John Stein); (4) Investigation of Candidate Genes in Families with Dyslexia (Cecilia Marino, Sara Mascheretti, Andrea Facoetti, & Massimo Molteni); and (5) What Educators Should Know About the State of Research on Genetic Influences on Reading and Reading Disability (Elena L. Grigorenko). Part II, Potential Early Precursors of Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia, begins with an introduction by April A. Benasich and contains the following: (6) Biological Factors Contributing to Reading Ability: Subcortical Auditory Function (Bharath Chandrasekaran & Nina Kraus); (7) Timing, Information Processing, and Efficacy: Early Factors that Impact Childhood Language Trajectories (April A. Benasich & Naseem Choudhury); (8) Neurolinguistic and Neurophysiological Precursors of Dyslexia: Selective Studies from the Dutch Dyslexia Programme (Ben A.M. Maassen, Aryan van der Leij, Natasha M. Maurits, & Frans Zwarts); and (9) Phonology and Literacy: Follow-Up Results of the Utrecht Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment Project (Elise de Bree, Margaret J. Snowling, Ellen Gerrits, Petra van Alphen, Aryan van der Leij, & Frank Wijnen). Part III, Potential Neurobehavioral Markers and Biological Mechanisms of Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia, begins with an introduction by R. Holly Fitch and contains the following: (10) Cortical Phenotypes Associated with Developmental Dyslexia: Reverse and Forward Genetic Approaches Using Animal Models (Glenn D. Rosen); (11) Using Animal Models to Dissociate Genetic, Neural, and Behavioral Contributors to Language Disability (R. Holly Fitch & Caitlin E. Szalkowski); (12) Prediction of Children's Reading Skills: Understanding the Interplay Among Environment, Brain, and Behavior (Jessica M. Black & Fumiko Hoeft); and (13) A Multifactorial Approach to Dyslexia (Cyril R. Pernet & Jean-Francois Demonet). Part IV, Developmental Neuroimaging: Identification, Intervention, and Remediation, begins with an introduction by April A. Benasich and contains the following: (14) Evolution of Pediatric Neuroimaging and Application of Cutting-Edge Techniques (P. Ellen Grant); (15) Anatomical Risk Factors for Reading Comprehension (Christiana M. Leonard); (16) Windows into Receptive Processing (Elena Plante); (17) Neural Correlates of Reading-Related Processes Examined with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Before Reading Onset and After Language/Reading Remediation (Nora Maria Raschle, Michelle YH Chang, Patrice L. Stering, Jennifer Zuk, & Nadine Gaab); (18) Transcending Gaps Among Disciplines in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Brain Volumetrics to Collaborative Multisystem Assessment (Martha R. Herbert); and (19) Integration of Left-Lateralized Neural Systems Supporting Skilled Reading (Bruce D. McCandliss & Yuliya N. Yoncheva). "Critical Research, Directions, and Priorities," a conclusion by Peggy McCardle and Brett Miller, and an index are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Conferences (Gatherings), Animals, Reading Comprehension

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1993). The Tacitness of Tacitus. A Methodological Approach to European Thought. No. 46. This study measured the analysis of verbal flows by means of volume-elasticity measures and the analysis of information flow structures and their representations in the form of a metaphysical cube. A special purpose system of computer programs (PERTEX) was used to establish the language space in which the textual flow patterns occurred containing the perspective and objective invariants. This system was applied to Tacitus' Germania as well as five different translations of the Latin text. Results demonstrate that the texts can be contrasted on the basis of six different metaphysical cubes containing the boundary conditions. Kinetic flow patterns were also coupled to kinematic flow patterns to demonstrate if and to what extent predictions can be made over levels of analysis. The outcome was a similitude between degree of forcefulness in text writing and degree of defensive thinking. A "limes of thought" is demonstrated between Swedish, Danish, German on one hand and Ancient Roman, French, and British on the other. Appendix includes texts used and results from text surface feature sorting. (Contains 18 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Classical Literature, Cognitive Mapping, Danish, English

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1993). An Experimental Approach to the Functional Analysis of Text Building Behaviour. Part II. The Information Flow. No. 48. In contrast to the mass-related verbal flow description given in part I, this report focuses on the cooperative interaction of textual agents and objectives in the production of information flows. Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) is used with the purpose of establishing their physical and functional significance in a non-mass based description of text building behavior. The most important feature of part II is the double aspect of the methodological approach to text building. One aspect of text building is an elaboration of Gibson's methodology into the study of a language-specific pickup of ecological invariants, exploring the abstract projections of ecological optics onto language spaces and the way in which projected optical flow fields constrain the coupling of perception and action, i.e. locomotor activities. The other refers to physical conditions as provided by the famous Visual Cliff experiments and their theoretical significance in an explanation of the established temporal morphologies. These have been represented within a topological space. This space is conceived of as a collection of points that are connected by affinity relations determining the As and Os of the AaO schema. It is shown that each point can be represented by a different number, and that the concentration of these points in the topological space ultimately becomes helical. It is also demonstrated that self-references and self-organization have significance for the embedding of the perceived topological properties of the experimental environment into text. The results of the analysis show that the ensemble of texts macroscopically is dominated by highly similar flow-field properties. Three figures, one table. An attachment contains cluster analyses. (Contains 15 references, 3 tables, and 1 figure.)   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Cluster Analysis, Ecological Factors, Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernard (1984). Steering Mechanisms for Knowability. 1984 No. 1. The foundations of knowledge by tradition have been treated analytically, and knowledge has been characterized as a theoretical subject. This article introduces a steering mechanism as the prerequisite for a study of knowledge work and maintenance on empirical grounds. Knowledge is treated synthetically, that is, as something that exists only through the individual's cooperation with its environment, which implies that criteria can be formulated for the isolation of knowledge processes. Specific processes may then be studied and interpreted with reference to manipulable factors and to the influence of these factors on measuring processes and theory construction.   [More]  Descriptors: Abstract Reasoning, Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Processes, Educational Research

Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup (1994). The Discontinuity of Human Existence, Part III. Perspective Text Analysis: A Methodological Approach to the Study of Competence. No. 52. The third in a series of three reports draws on earlier discussion of theories of discontinuity in human existence to develop a method for studying individual perceptions of existence. The method is Perspective Text Analysis, a form of discourse analysis that focuses on self-reference as a reflection of competence. The model for the methodology is first outlined, and the computer program used to perform the text analysis is explained. Application of the analysis to one text, a Danish company employee's comments concerning a job for which he was applying, is examined and the results compared with the subject's self-assessment and a psychologist's report on the individual. The text that was analyzed is also presented. Contains 20 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Beliefs, Cognitive Psychology, Competence

Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Shiffrin, Nina D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E. (2009). Probing the Neural Correlates of Anticipated Peer Evaluation in Adolescence, Child Development. Neural correlates of social-cognition were assessed in 9- to- 17-year-olds (N = 34) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants appraised how unfamiliar peers they had previously identified as being of high or low interest would evaluate them for an anticipated online chat session. Differential age- and sex-related activation patterns emerged in several regions previously implicated in affective processing. These included the ventral striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and insula. In general, activation patterns shifted with age in older relative to younger females but showed no association with age in males. Relating these neural response patterns to changes in adolescent social-cognition enriches theories of adolescent social development through enhanced neurobiological understanding of social behavior.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Behavior, Peer Evaluation, Adolescents, Social Development

Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed. (2012). Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most important contemporary theories that form the foundation of the conception and design of student-centered learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. This book is well suited as a textbook for courses in instructional design, educational psychology, learning theory, curriculum theory and design, and related areas. The rise of constructivism and its associated theories represented a paradigm shift for educators and instructional designers to a view of learning as necessarily more social, conversational, and constructive than traditional transmissive views of learning. This bestselling book was the first to provide a manageable overview of the altered field, and the second edition has been fully updated to include expert introductions to metacognition, Argumentation, and other key contemporary theories. This book is divided into three parts. Part I, Overview, contains the following: (1) Student-Centered Learning Environments: Foundations, Assumptions and Design (Susan Land, Michael Hannafin and Kevin Oliver. Part II, Theoretical Perspectives for Learning Environments, contains the following: (2) From Practice Fields to Communities of Practice (Sasha Barab and Thomas Duffy); (3) Designing Model-Based Learning Environments to Support Mental Models for Learning (Pablo Pirnay-Dummer, Dirk Ifenthaler and Norbert M. Seel and Albert Ludwigs); (4) Conceptual Change (David Jonassen and Matthew Easter); (5) Argumentation and Student-Centered Learning Environments (E. Michael Nussbaum); (6) Theory and Practice of Case-Based Learning Aids (Janet L. Kolodner, Brian Dorn, Jakita Owensby Thomas and Mark Guzdial); (7) Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning in Student-Centered Learning Environments (Roger Azevedo, Reza F. Behnagh, Melissa Duffy, Jason M. Harley and Gregory Trevors); (8) Embodied Cognition and Learning Environment Design (John B. Black, Ayelet Segal, Jonathan Vitale and Cameron Fadjo); (9) Everyday Expertise: Learning within and across Formal and Informal Settings (Heather Toomey Zimmerman and Phillip Bell); (10) Activity Theory in the Learning Technologies (Ben DeVane and Kurt Squire); (11) Learning Communities: Theoretical Foundations for Making Connections (Janette R. Hill); and (12) What Is a Community of Practice and How Can We Support It? (Christopher Hoadley). Part III, Theoretical Perspective for Investigating Learning Environments, contains the following: (13) Learning Environments as Emergent Phenomena: Theoretical and Methodological Implications of Complexity (Michael Jacobson and Manu Kapur). [For the first edition, "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments", see ED528911.]   [More]  Descriptors: Expertise, Communities of Practice, Constructivism (Learning), Instructional Design

Campbell, Stephen R.; Cimen, O. Arda; Handscomb, K. (2009). Learning and Understanding Division: A Study in Educational Neuroscience, Online Submission. A widely recognized concern in elementary school mathematics education is that teachers' understanding of the mathematical curricular content generally appears quite fragmented, sparsely connected, and procedurally oriented. This pilot study applies methods of educational neuroscience to investigate and improve preservice teachers' learning and understanding of whole number and rational number division and connections between the two using a Computer Enhanced Mathematics Learning Environment (CEMLE) called DivFact that enables learners to explore the conceptual and procedural connections between whole number and rational number division. The goal in this research is to investigate aspects of preservice teachers' use of DivFact from different theoretical perspectives pertaining to computer-enhanced graphical and symbolic representations of whole number and rational number division. Specific objectives include determining what kinds of learning styles are manifest through the use of DivFact; how effective is DivFact in helping learners to understand division; and in what ways can the design of this CEMLE be improved. An important counterpart of this research is developing and applying methods of educational neuroscience toward this end.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teachers, Elementary School Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Numbers

Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr. (2012). P=fm: Fostering Innovative Teaching and Learning in a Digital Age, Online Submission. A larger scale context for power teaching includes ideas from Duane Elgin, Lester Brown, Al Gore and many others. Collectively, they say the convergence of systems level global problems without national borders place before humankind a choice the species has never encountered in 195,000 years of life on "Spaceship Earth." In Elgin's language, humans can experience an "evolutionary crash" or "evolutionary bounce." We can continue a path of global gluttony. Or we can create a path of voluntary simplicity. Elgin argues that we can choose the scenario best suited for what we want tomorrow. Far ahead, we can see Peter Ward's "Homo futuris" (a new species of humans replacing Homo sapiens the way Homo sapiens replaced Homo erectus). We can see world class schools across the planet as central agents in the growth of human intelligence and wise living. And we can see schools in the United States as agents for what Thomas and Brown call a "new culture of learning." That is the grand context for President Obama's strategic vision: create a world class public school system in our nation by 2020. The power teaching prototype (P=fm) aims at the president's vision. With just two factors, the prototype connects the future of learning and Mind, Brain, Education Science. Most recently, it created future bent, writing/thinking intensive psychology courses at a small college in the urban South. With just two factors, P=fm fosters innovative teaching and learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Small Colleges, Global Approach, Black Colleges

Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup (1994). The Discontinuity of Human Existence, Part I. The Fundamental Concepts of Human Existence and the Relation between the Singular and the Super Singular. No. 50. The first in a series of three reports on philosophy of human existence focuses on human activity in the economic context, or more specifically, the role of the entrepreneur. A variety of treatments of entrepreneurship in the literature of economics and cognitive psychology are examined, and it is found that analyses of entrepreneurship are inhibited by the unclarified relationship between the singular (individual) and the super singular (society). Concepts of human existence are then explored across the classic theories of Karl Marx, Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Auguste Comte, A. N. Leontjew, Emile Durkheim, C. Horton Cooley, George Herbert Mead, L. Feuerbach, Sigmund Freud, and Max Weber. It is concluded that these theories can not solve the problem arising from the relationship of singular and super singular. It is also found that these theories have some elements in common: canalization that encompasses transference of something from one to another; correlation that encompasses reciprocity, which is the basis of generalization; and combination, which encompasses production of the new. The classic theories also point to the problem of self-reference. Subsequent reports examine theories of discontinuity and explore the use of perspective text analysis to study the notion of competence.   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Beliefs, Cognitive Psychology, Economics

Friedman, Dorian (2006). What Science Is Telling Us: How Neurobiology and Developmental Psychology Are Changing the Way Policymakers and Communities Think about the Developing Child. Perspectives, National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. By bringing together neurologists, developmental psychologists, pediatricians, and economists, the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child offers a unique knowledge base from which early childhood policy and practice can be informed. By communicating how and why early experiences have a lasting impact on brain architecture–and what kinds of experiences are positive or negative for healthy brain development–the Council can help policymakers, parents, and practitioners improve prospects for our nation's children. Understanding the special developmental challenges for poor children, such as less stimulating early environments and greater exposure to health risks such as iron deficiency, can help us all focus our attention–and public dollars–on areas that can have the most impact on society. Current science can be applied most effectively to four key areas of policy and practice: preparing young children for school; providing the best forms of child care; considering the well-being of children under welfare reform; and protecting children who have been abused or neglected.   [More]  Descriptors: Psychologists, Pediatrics, Preschool Education, Cognitive Structures

Ray, Marcy (2006). Science Paves the Way for Bipartisan Policymaking: Washington State Legislators Find Common Ground on Early Childhood Issues. Perspectives, National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. In 2006, the input of scientists, economists, and private industry representatives inspired nearly unparalleled bipartisan support in Washington state for the formation of a Department of Early Learning. This new cabinet-level department consolidates three separate agencies, provides universal preschool for all children in Washington, and establishes a groundbreaking public-private partnership in support of early childhood development. The process by which policymakers garnered bipartisan support, one currently being replicated in nearly a dozen other states, is to use science to inform lawmakers in order to guide wise decision-making.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Industry, Legislators, Children

Ritter, Michael S. (2009). Rhythms of Dialogue and Referential Activity: Implicit Process across Procedural and Verbal Realms, ProQuest LLC. This work examines the relationship between implicit procedural and implicit verbal processes as they occur in natural adult conversation. Theoretical insights and empirical findings are rooted in a move towards integration of Bucci's "Referential Activity" (RA) and "Multiple Code" perspectives and Beebe and Jaffe's "Dyadic Systems" and "Rhythms of Dialogue" models. Both traditions utilize microanalytic process measures applicable to naturalistic unstructured interactions including psychoanalysis. Beebe's perspective provides grounding in implicit procedural rhythm processes and Bucci's view provides grounding in the links across subsymbolic experience and language. An overview of both perspectives is provided in the context of a larger multidisciplinary review of implicit process, covering cognitive and social psychology, mirror neuron research, infant research, attachment, and recent psychoanalytic debates.   Contemporary psychoanalytic debates often assume that language processes and implicit processes are independent modes, inherently emphasizing a polarity between consciousness and symbolization. This blurs the distinction between the implict-explicit spectrum of experience and the nonsymbolic-symbolic spectrum of experience. In contrast, building on Bucci's theory, this study introduces a model that includes eight overlapping processing modes across these intersecting dimensions. The importance of acknowledging the implicit verbal realm of experience in psychoanalysis is stressed.   The empirical contribution applies DAAP (Bucci & Maskit, 2005) language measures and AVTA (Jaffe & Feldstein, 1970; Jaffe et al., 2001) vocal rhythm measures to 39 ten-minute adult conversations. Implicit procedural processes are measured through time series analysis of "switching pause" (SP), the degree of predictability of silence durations in the moments when speakers switch turns. Implicit language processes are measured through "WRAD" and "Ref/WRAD," gauging referential "connection" and "immersion" of speakers' language respectively. More optimal rhythm processes and more optimal language processes were predicted to flow together in the same conversations.   As predicted, results demonstrate that (1) systematic associations between implicit procedural and implicit verbal processes do exist on a microanalytic, moment-to-moment basis; (2) enhanced language style is related to higher degrees of switching pause autocorrelation and more midrange degrees of switching pause cross-correlation; and (3) there are implicit differences in speakers' roles. Findings are discussed in the context of recent psychoanalytic critiques, integrations and future applications.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Speech Communication, Psychiatry, Social Psychology, Cognitive Development

Carver, Sharon M., Ed.; Shrager, Jeff, Ed. (2012). The Journey from Child to Scientist: Integrating Cognitive Development and the Education Sciences, APA Books. The impulse to investigate the natural world is deeply rooted in our earliest childhood experiences. This notion has long guided researchers to uncover the cognitive mechanisms underlying the development of scientific reasoning in children. Until recently, however, research in cognitive development and education followed largely independent tracks. A major exception to this trend is represented in the multifaceted work of David Klahr. His lifelong effort to integrate a detailed understanding of children's reasoning and skill acquisition with the role of education in influencing and facilitating scientific exploration has been essential to the growth of these fields. In this volume, a diverse group of stellar contributors follow Dr. Klahr's example in examining the practical implications of our insights into cognitive development for children in the classroom. Authors discuss such wide-ranging ideas as the evolution of "folk science" in young children and the mechanisms that underlie mathematical understanding, as well as mental models used by children in classroom activities. The volume's lessons will have profound implications for STEM education, and for the next generation of scientists. Contents include: (1) From Theory to Application and Back: Following in the Giant Footsteps of David Klahr (Robert S. Siegler); (2) The Learning of Science and the Science of Learning: The Role of Analogy (Zhe Chen); (3) Does Folk Science Develop? (Frank C. Keil); (4) The Evolved Mind and Scientific Discovery (David C. Geary); (5) Educational Neuroscience: Applying the Klahrian Method to Science Education (Kevin Niall Dunbar); (6) Is Development Domain Specific or Domain General? A Third Alternative (Annette Karmiloff-Smith); (7) Simulating Discovery and Education in a Soccer Science World (Jeff Shrager); (8) Moving Young "Scientists-in-Waiting" Onto Science Learning Pathways: Focus on Observation (Rochel Gelman and Kimberly Brenneman); (9) Supporting Inquiry About the Foundations of Evolutionary Thinking in the Elementary Grades (Richard Lehrer and Leona Schauble); (10) Engineering in and for Science Education (Christian D. Schunn, Eli M. Silk, and Xornam S. Apedoe); (11) To Teach or Not to Teach Through Inquiry (Erin Marie Furtak, Richard J. Shavelson, Jonathan T. Shemwell, and Maria Figueroa); (12) Epistemic Foundations for Conceptual Change (Richard A. Duschl and Maria Pilar Jimenez-Aleixandre); and (13) Patterns, Rules, and Discoveries in Life and in Science (David Klahr).   [More]  Descriptors: Thinking Skills, Class Activities, Learning Activities, Science Education

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 113 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Eileen Kintsch, Sheryl Young, Bernhard Bierschenk, Patricia Baggett, L. E. Bourne, Jan Mattsson, Martha C. Polson, Inger Bierschenk, S. R. Young, and Angela Montanari.

Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup (1994). The Discontinuity of Human Existence, Part II: The General and The Specific Theories of Discontinuity. No. 51. This is the second paper in a series of three, the objective of which is to describe the fundamental discontinuities of human existence. Self-reference is explored in the first section of this paper, arguing that neither time-space nor developmental dimensions are adequate to explain the problem of self-reference. It is argued that self-reference might indeed be an uncognizable degree of freedom that governs human existence. The founding propositions of the discontinuity theory then state that human existence subexists as difference, time-space, development, and self-reference. The second section maintains that human existence can be modeled as discursive strings encompassing a context-agent enacting an agent enacting an objective, where the objective itself can be an agent enacting an objective, and so on. The general theory of discontinuity is described in section 2. Section 3 encompasses the specific theory of discontinuity that builds on the heritage of classic theories explored in part 1. The theory encompasses three different forms of development: (1) canalization, which includes perspectivizing; (2) correlation, which includes systematizing; and (3) combination, which encompasses organizing. Nineteen figures illustrate the discussion. (Contains 18 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Foreign Countries, Individual Development, Life Events

Caramelli, Nicoletta; Montanari, Angela (1995). Animal Terms in Children's Methaphors. No. 53. Whether children shift their interpretations of a metaphor according to the social role of the speaker and the addressee of the sentence or the degree of lexicalization of the metaphor and the child's age was studied using a simple metaphorical sentence and animal terms. The 12 animal terms produced 6 lexicalized and 6 new metaphors. Metaphors were embedded in short stories with: (1) speaker and addressee both children; (2) child speaker and teacher addressee; (3) teacher speaker and child addressee; and (4) speaker and addressee both teachers. The 48 stories were told to 72 children aged 6, 9, and 11 years, and each child was asked what the speaker intended to mean and whether he or she had positive or negative feelings for the addressee. The paraphrases children gave for each metaphor were analyzed, and data were tabulated as to perceptual dimensions. Children aged 9 and 11, but not 6-year-olds, acknowledged the role of the speaker and the addressee, requiring more words to interpret the metaphor presented by a teacher to another teacher than to interpret the metaphor addressed by a child to another child. The meaning of the same metaphor also changed with the child's age. (Contains 7 figures, 9 tables, and 13 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Age Differences, Animals, Child Development, Children

Baggett, Patricia (1983). Four Principles for Designing Instructions. This paper outlines four principles for preparing multimedia instructional sequences and, where necessary, the experimental methods for applying the principles successfully. Covered first are the criteria for good terminology for unfamiliar objects, actions, and situations, with methods for deriving such terminology. In the next section guidelines are set forth for overlapping visual and spoken elements in time so as to enable students to form good associations. After a discussion of the rationale behind dividing instructional units into conceptual units that are in agreement with people's natural conceptualization, a method is presented for determining students' natural conceptualization. Addressed in the final section are procedures for combining audiovisual instruction with hands-on practice in a learning procedure. The paper includes specific instructional procedures as well as discussions of the empirical experiments on which the principles are based. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Audiovisual Instruction, Classroom Techniques, Concept Formation

Bierschenk, Inger (1987). The Controlling Function of the Agent in the Analysis of Question-Response Relationships. In contrast to traditional linguistic analysis, a model based on the empirical agent is presented and tested. A text is regarded as an intentionally produced cognitive process. The analysis has to take the agent (perspective) into account to facilitate an adequate processing of its objectives (viewpoints). Moreover, the model is surface-oriented and assumes that the cognitive relevance of an utterance is defined by the dynamics of the text production and not by artificial criteria. The model has been tested on responses to questionnaire items constructed by a multinational industry. The responses were produced by 35 randomly selected workers (mechanics) from England, Italy, Sweden, West Germany, and the United States; seven subjects were chosen from each country. The differences were tested for the power of normal curve test of P(sub 1) equals P(sub 2) via arcsine transformation at a(sub 1) equals 0.05. By agent control of the question-response relationship, differences in coherence could be demonstrated. English and Swedish workers showed a significantly higher coherence with the perspective of the industry, whereas Italian, German, and American workers assume their own agent function in their response behavior.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cross Cultural Studies, Linguistics, Models

Kintsch, Eileen (1989). Macroprocesses and Microprocesses in the Development of Summarization Skill. A study investigated how students' mental representation of an expository text and the inferences they used in summarizing varied as a function of text difficulty and of differences in the task. Subjects, 96 college students and students from grades 6 and 10, wrote summaries of expository texts and answered orally several probe questions about the content. Reading difficulty was systematically manipulated at the microstructure and macrostructure processing levels. Results supported the prediction of qualitative changes in the way the meaning is represented by different age groups in different text conditions which are related to the amount and kinds of inferential processes on which the summaries were based. Results also indicated that although college students generalized the content more in summarizing texts with poor macrostructure, these same texts interfered with the sixth graders' ability to infer or select text-based macropropositions. (Seven figures of data are included; and 47 references and examples of expository text are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Content Area Reading, Content Area Writing, Difficulty Level

Bierschenk, Bernhard; Mattsson, Jan (1987). Axiological Measurement of Human Value Factors in Mental Processes. Modern behavioral research focuses on the possibility of a direct measurement of value preferences, which are conceived as important causal variables of behavior. A method and procedure for the measurement and representation of human value factors is presented. The thesis was studied that valuation results from an active inquiring agent whose cognition rests on the extraction and abstraction of invariants. The mental processes of 35 randomly selected workers (mechanics) from Sweden, England, West Germany, Italy, and the United States were studied via Perspective Text Analysis (an ecologically oriented theory of information synthesis). Seven subjects were chosen from each country. Unrestricted verbal responses of the subjects to three open-ended questions concerning information management and utilization were analyzed. The subjects' mental processes were measured in accordance with an axiological approach. The outcome of the valuation was formulated into sequential flowcharts. The results show great variations in the pattern of displayed valuations among the five cultures. Each pattern is characterized by a distinctive value factor (pessimism, criticism, positivism, optimism, and individualism).   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Tests, Cross Cultural Studies

Young, S. R.; Bourne, L. E., Jr. (1982). Idea Organization and Idea Recall. A study was conducted to test a model that conceives of long term memory as a propositional network of ideas made up of knowledge clusters and related subclusters. After two pilot studies suggested that recall order of ideas was unrelated to organization, the study investigated whether units of main and supporting ideas produced during organization cohered during recall. Subjects were 18 college undergraduates randomly assigned to two equal groups. On the first day of the experiment, all subjects generated 20 ideas on how college differs from high school. Subjects in one group then outlined their ideas in sequence using two orders, main ideas and supporting ideas; subjects in the other group were asked to write a text from the ideas they had generated. Twenty-four hours later all subjects were instructed to number their papers from 1 to 20 and to recall their original ideas. Analysis of the data once again indicated that recall order was unrelated to both generation and organization order. Major ideas were recalled more frequently than supporting ideas for both groups of subjects, and those who wrote texts recalled more ideas in all. These results are consistent with the cluster hypotheses of the model under investigation. Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Coherence, Higher Education, Learning Theories

Polson, Martha C.; And Others (1983). Resource Allocation in Cerebral Specialization. Final Report. A study involved the development and testing of a theoretical framework of cerebral specialization in which each hemisphere of the brain is viewed as an independent information processing system. During the study, four sets of experiments were conducted. These involved behavioral as well as electrophysiological measures. According to the researchers' model, any given set of tasks can overlap partially, completely, or not at all in terms of the resources required from a particular hemisphere. Among the conclusions reached during the study were the following: (1) data from the experiments support the idea that there are at least two types of resource supplies that are associated with processing in the left or right hemispheres; (2) the resource supplies of the left and right hemispheres are independent and have implications for both cerebral specialization and divided attention issues; and (3) according to data from the electrophysiological experiments, gender seems to play an important role in the organization and utilization of cerebral resources. Descriptors: Brain, Cerebral Dominance, Cognitive Processes, Lateral Dominance

Baggett, Patricia (1983). Learning a Procedure from Multimedia Instructions: The Effects of Film and Practice. In a study that was conducted to measure performance as a function of multimedia instructions, 360 college students in a University of Colorado introductory psychology course were taught to build a model helicopter from an assembly kit. Their instructions consisted of either viewing a narrated film (one or two viewings), or hands-on practice using a model as a guide (building one or two models), or a combination (see film first, build second; or build first, see film second). Performance on assembly from memory was assessed either immediately or after a one-week delay using both structural and functional measures. Performance was best immediately for groups who had hands-on practice, either twice or in conjunction with a film. After a week, the group who practiced first and saw the film second performed significantly better than all others. A theoretical framework based on multimedia concept formation may account for the results. In order for lasting concepts to be formed in memory, a precedence is suggested: motoric elements should be put in first, followed by visual, followed by linguistic. Descriptors: College Students, Higher Education, Instructional Films, Intermode Differences

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1990). Behavioural Semantics: A Comparison between Topologic and Algebraic Scaling in the Measurement of Human Dignity. No. 33. Topological and algebraic scales were compared in the representation of the concept of human worth in behavioral-semantic terms. In a first experiment, seven doctoral students of Business Administration in Sweden explored the notion of worth using definitions from at least 10 dictionaries as the intentional-semantic content. Each subject served as experiencer, observer, and recorder in grouping entries by content. On the basis of the differentiations presented and names proposed for each of the groupings, the prototypical character of the groupings were summarized using the following descriptive names: (1) eigenvalue; (2) reputation; (3) reliability; (4) impartiality; (5) rank; (6) significance; and (7) status. The structural connections were represented topographically. In a second experiment, 180 Swedish high school students, college students, and adult professionals were asked to make preferential judgments about the intentional-semantic content of 50 statements about worth prepared by the subjects in the first experiment. A statistical analysis of choice alternatives then established an algebraic scale. Factor analysis led to the conclusion that the structure of the investigated concept was qualitatively invariant. The topological scale was preferred because it gave a synthetic representation of the underlying structure, while the algebraic scale only gave an analytic representation of details.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Algebra, Behavioral Science Research, Classification

Bierschenk, Bernhard; Bierschenk, Inger (1985). The Agent Function as the Basis for Perspective Control. The empirical study of knowledge representation is the focus of this paper, which observes that language as the cognitive instrument in the communication of phenomena must be capable of expressing relations of the observer-observation kind. The paper points out that this implies a coopeartive process at work in the production of a text, of which the basic components are agent, action, and objective. The paper then presents the AaO paradigm that defines the relations denoting the functions to be expressed in a verbal statement and emphasizes in particular the steering and controlling function of the agent. The paper concludes by noting that in contrast to the traditional way of investigating knowledge, that is to let the object component govern the analysis, the analysis system described in the paper is governed by the subject component (agent function), which increases the realism of the knowledge analysis by means of its capacity to differentiate the perspective information. Diagrams and tables illustrating the text are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavioral Science Research, Classification, Cognitive Processes, Epistemology

Caramelli, Nicoletta (1986). The "Schema" Concept: Bartlett Till Now. No. 21. In 1932, F. C. Bartlett first used the concept of "schema" borrowing it from Head, to suggest a unitary structure whose elements interacted in a complex way. This structure, which aimed to insure the continuity of the cognizing organism, was at the same time the expression of the functional principle responsible for the mutual interdependence among an organism, a human being, and the environment. Current research on cognitive processes frequently refers to the concept of "schema", but interprets it as a formal structure that can be defined by its content and reduced to its several elements. The "schema" concept, as held by Bartlett, underwent a radical change as a result of R. C. Oldfield's transposition of the original definition into the human information processing conceptual frame. U. Neisser and R. A. Schmidt interpreted the concept of "schema" so that it acquired a rule-like character as well as an anticipatory function. Only within the ecologically oriented interpretation of the cognitive processes does a true reappraisal of the meaning of "schema" as originally forwarded by Bartlett surface. The theoretical flavor of Bartlett's research exists in the ecological approach to the study of cognition.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Ecology, Foreign Countries, Schemata (Cognition)

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1986). The Cult of Understanding. Understanding is discussed with reference to an agent-action-objective model. The formalism developed controls the processes of differentiation and integration underlying understanding. The starting point is a culturally agreed-upon expectancy or prescription that defines a particular form of understanding. Central to an investigation of how scientists model understanding is how they conceive symbols. The collective cognitive imperative in the scientific community states that symbols are abstract codes whose definitions are wholly arbitrary and, hence, can only be understood by those who have a common outlook. Scientists working with the development of computer technology, especially within the field of artificial intelligence, have repeatedly pointed out that they have constructed models of understanding the natural language of significance for cognition-oriented research. Therefore, focus is on classical models. It appears that self-reference is an important constituent component in any model or theory of understanding.   [More]  Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Processes, Computer Simulation, Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1996). Emergent Novelties in the Mentality of Dizygotic Twins. Scanator is an extremely valuable tool in the functional analysis of qualitative stability in text building behavior during writing. Scanator also allows for a detailed investigation of subtle changes emerging in the structural relations of emergent novelties. This study focused on the extension of the application of Scanator to one pair of dizygotic (DZ) twins. Specifically, the study examined whether DZ twins differ in their mental structures as they construct text. The test material consisted of a series of pictures in which a baby is navigating a visual cliff–a sheet of glass between the child and its mother. Subjects wrote a 5-page essay in Swedish, rewrote the essay, constructed an abstract of the essay, then wrote the essay in English. The Scanator results did not indicate any systematic differences. A powerful effect was found in the cohesion of the produced verbal flows, but no such effect was evident in the elasticity of text volume flows. Contains 13 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cohesion (Written Composition), Comparative Analysis, Content Analysis

Young, Sheryl; And Others (1982). Process Models of Reading: Some Data on the Initiation of Processes. Two experiments were conducted to distinguish empirically between the interactive and noninteractive models of reading. In the first study, 18 undergraduates divided into three groups by reading ability read stories in an RSVP mode. Two variables were manipulated within subjects–rate of presentation and amount of text presented per unit of time. Results showed that recall improved with increased unit size. Providing subjects with optimal or near optimal chunks reduced or eliminated one resource demand, thus permitting an allocation of those resources to other processes that contributed to recall. As the rate of presentation increased, recall deteriorated. To determine whether assisting the subject in chunking was responsible for the unit size effect, a new unit size was used in the second experiment with 84 different undergraduate subjects. In addition, units of text were presented so that the eyes remained fixated at the same location throughout every passage. Results showed that the elimination of eye movements improved performance. In general, the unit size manipulations in the two experiments demonstrated that assisting the subjects in chunking and thereby freeing resources used to chunk resulted in both improving text memory and increasing the number of macro propositions produced. Poor readers compensated for poor comprehension processes by slowing all processing down. It was concluded that the data were inconsistent with both serial and parallel noninteractive models of reading; that resource allocation among component processes was an integral part of any interactive model; and that resources and data were exchanged in both a top-down and a bottom-up manner during reading. Descriptors: College Students, Eye Fixations, Eye Movements, Higher Education

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 112 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Celia Hodent, Peter Bryant, Andrzej Ehrenfeucht, Olivier Houde, Patricia Baggett, Helge Helmersson, Bernhard Bierschenk, and Martha C. Polson.

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1990). Simulation of Action-Event Cooperation: Emergence of Knowing. No. 32. An ecological approach to a psychological study of language is presented in this paper. Such an approach is based on the understanding that the process of perceiving an object or event is based neither in images or pictures nor in verbal or symbolic structures. In order for objects and events to become knowable, higher order cognitive processes must occur because these processes capture crucial qualities of structure and form. In light of the presupposed relationship between function and form, a computer simulation of neurotic behavior is critiqued. An 18-item list of references is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Psychology, Computational Linguistics, Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1995). The Assessment of Competence: A New Field of Research. No. 54. A method for the assessment of competence in language is suggested that allows a new approach to the study of the sources and conditions of competence development. The method builds on the functional analysis of text building behavior, making use of the discontinuities in produced text as the only reliable observations from a scientific point of view. The method is known as Perspective Text Analysis. It characterizes the mechanism that has been discovered to govern text production and to foster an understanding of the actual processes of movement in language. The functional analysis of qualitative stability in text building behavior incorporates the double aspect of time into the approach, partly through an algorithm that takes care of the dynamics in text building behavior, and partly through the sequencing in text production that secures its evolutionary aspect. Aspects of competence are presented concerning five different areas. By means of global state attractors resulting from the perspective of anticipated consequences, mental determinants are presented. On the basis of established temporal morphologies, the kinds of determinants that constrain one's thinking under various experimental conditions are shown. Five tables illustrate concepts under discussion. (Contains 35 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Algorithms, Competence, Educational Assessment, Language Proficiency

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1992). The Referential Reality of Sweden: A Topological Approach to the Consciousness of High and Low Achievers. No. 44. The degree of consciousness of one's own familiar surroundings by high and low achieving students of a technical gymnasium in Malmo (Sweden) was studied through essays written about Sweden as a place to live. Focus was on testing the proposition that an individual's ability to express cognitive integration of experience in covariation with personal knowledge is reflected through natural language, based on the assumption that selective attention and schematic processing are directly built into the process of perception. Essays of 4 students were chosen from 85 submitted. Using these four subjects as coordinate systems and bio-psycho-physical frames of reference, it was demonstrated that the order of performance can be upheld over levels of analysis. The way in which transformations of aggregates of joint textual element complexes become fashioned into single functional unities was also shown. On the basis of these unities, absolute termini (limits) are established and named. These termini provide for the structural connections that specify the informational invariants of one's own referential reality. These invariants also serve as keys to consciousness in the Kantian sense (intuition), and thus give a precise phenomenological description of reality through systemic deduction.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Comparative Analysis, Essays, Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1991). The Schema Axiom as Foundation of a Theory for Measurement and Representation of Consciousness. No. 38. In this study, the Kantian schema has been applied to natural language expression. The novelty of the approach concerns the way in which the Kantian schema interrelates the analytic with the synthetic mode in the construction of the presented formalism. The main thesis is based on the premise that the synthetic, in contrast to the analytic, proposition plays the central role in the measurement and representation of consciousness. It is assumed that the discontinuities in natural language production are the only reliable observations and that there is at present no other way in which these observations can be formalized. Despite the enormous number of textual elements and variations, it has been possible to demonstrate perspective and objective structures empirically as the result of a series of non-deterministic bifurcations of a dynamic vector field within euclidean space. By contrasting the captions to the picture series of the original "visual cliff" experiments with a narration produced in an experiment with a single subject, it was possible to show that the formalism can deal with alternative descriptions of the same system (experimental arrangement). On the basis of the given theoretical outline, a totally new comprehension of "text" and the underlying theoretical concepts related to the ecological approach to visual perception has emerged. Five figures illustrate the discussion. There is a 41-item list of references.   [More]  Descriptors: Epistemology, Foreign Countries, Language Usage, Measurement Techniques

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1991). Mentality Measurement and Representation. No. 39. Because the scientific treatment of the concept of consciousness has been multifaceted, there have been several different approaches to research concerning consciousness. This article gives an introductory account of the research on consciousness. The main hypothesis advanced is based on the premise that consciousness emerges from the cooperative interaction of multiple agents and agencies within naturally produced text. Through Perspective Text Analysis, it is demonstrated that the Kantian schema provides the necessary foundation for making explicit the teleonomic component governing natural language production. As a consequence, the concept of text is redefined so that the textual transformation and recursive restructuring reach their meaning in relation to the concepts of textual dynamics and linkages. Its configurational architecture is demonstrated on the basis of the (AaO) formula. As a result, the entirety of structural relations evolves as a double helical structure. Analysis within the framework of differential topology demonstrates the necessity of cooperating perspective and objective structures in establishing perspective and objective invariance. Five figures illustrate the discussion. A 23-item list of references is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Foreign Countries, Language Usage, Measurement Techniques

Baggett, Patricia; Ehrenfeucht, Andrzej (1985). Conceptualizing in Assembly Tasks. Technical Report No. 139. This paper gives a method to determine a person's hypothetical conceptualization of an object — its breakdown into subassemblies, subsubassemblies, and so on — from the person's sequence of requests for pieces used in constructing it. A technique is given to determine whether, given a group of conceptualizations, there is a typical one. The hypothesis that assembly instructions presenting a typical conceptualization will yield better structural and functional performance than those presenting a minority one is supported experimentally. Conceptualizations are derived from objects built from memory (and incorrectly) by people who first studied typical or minority instructions. A new distance measure determines how far these conceptualizations are from those presented in the instructions. People studying typical instructions yield typical conceptualizations, and importantly, people studying minority instructions also yield typical conceptualizations, although they are significantly less typical than those from typical instructions. From the theoretical construct of conceptualizations and the methods of measuring them a practical principle, and a way to implement it, are found. The principle: When a single set of procedural instructions is designed, it should present the conceptualization that the majority of people to be instructed by it bring to the situation naturally. Descriptors: Assembly (Manufacturing), Cluster Analysis, Cognitive Style, Concept Formation

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1991). The Metaphor as Instrument for Naming the Terminal States of Ecological Invariants. No. 37. Implicit figuration and subjective interpretation make up the conventional basis of the classical discussion of the comprehensiveness and aesthetic quality of the metaphor. Its function and use in social science research is illustrated as a background to a radically different methodological approach. By means of a Perspective Text Analysis, it is demonstrated that metaphor has to be reconceived as the Re-naming Instrument. The hypothesis tested is that the metaphor carries ecological information. Results of the analysis show that the metaphor has to be treated as a self-contained verbal expression of affordance. By naming the affordance (i.e., what object and events in the environment offer), events of a certain kind are brought into perspective. One table illustrates algorithmic processing of a metaphoric sentence. A 24-item list of references is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Algorithms, Foreign Countries, Mathematical Models, Metaphors

Baggett, Patricia; Ehrenfeucht, Andrzej (1985). A Multimedia Knowledge Representation for an "Intelligent" Computerized Tutor. Technical Report No. 142. The intended end product of the research project described is an "intelligent" multimedia tutoring system for procedural tasks, in particular, the repair of physical objects. This paper presents the data structure that will be used, i.e., a graph with five types of nodes (mental, abstract, motoric or action, visual, and verbal) and two types of links (subconcept and pointer). The graph examples given in the paper are knowledge representations of conceptualizations that people might have for a simple object, e.g., a flashlight. Use of the representations is shown for choosing actions, planning strategies, making inferences, and designing instructions. The plan for computer implementation of the tutoring system is also given, as well as a report on applications of this knowledge representation, including how it can be derived from experimentally observed behavior. Finally, this knowledge representation is compared with others such as KRL, Pavio, and linguistically based theories. Descriptors: Artificial Intelligence, Computer Assisted Instruction, Computers, Equipment Maintenance

Helmersson, Helge (1992). Main Principles for Perspective Text Analysis via the PC-system PERTEX. No. 41. This document describes how the main principles of Perspective Text Analysis are implemented in the PC-system PERTEX, concentrating on the main steps of the analysis. The analysis starts with normal text and ends in a topological representation of the mentality that the text presents. The text material is processed in the following main steps: (1) coding of function words by means of a special dictionary; (2) design and coding of blocks according to the AaO (Agent-verb-Objective) paradigm; (3) supplementation of A- and O-dummies; (4) generation of A/O matrices; (5) cluster analysis based on generated matrices; and (6) topological presentation of outcomes. PERTEX gives an integration of all the steps in the analysis, and the user is offered numerous comprehensive functions for automatic coding and control of syntax. By a multilingual design, PERTEX can operate on texts in different languages. The user can select different menu-languages for the interaction with PERTEX. The technical output of the system is illustrated in the appendix with the complete 17-page printout from analysis of a classic text.   [More]  Descriptors: Cluster Analysis, Coding, Computer Software, Matrices

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1991). Provision and Preservation of Knowledge: A Department of Educational and Psychological Research as Laboratory for Analyzing Scientific Discourse. Two kinds of perspectives governing the provision and preservation of knowledge, a universal and an ecological perspective, are discussed in this paper. In the first case, scientific observations are represented through a semantic interpretation of facts. This is illustrated with a series of experiments on semantic feature perception in the recall of pictures described by descriptor terms. In the second case, scientific observations are conceived as part of a constitutive context. Consequently, the researcher's development toward structurization and his use of precise concepts and well-defined conceptual relations requires an orientation toward the cooperative dimension of the context. This is illustrated by an ecologically oriented study of an information system that measures intentionality and orientation by means of an Agent-action-Objective (AaO) formula. Within the AaO formula a dependency between the cooperatively operating and interacting components creates the absolute terms (i.e., the invariants); these, in turn, serve as a point of departure for information synthesis. It is demonstrated that scientific reporting has the intermediary function between context and knowledge representation. Intentionality and orientation are fundamental in the development of concepts and conceptual relations. (21 references)   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Structures, Comprehension, Concept Formation, Context Effect

Hodent, Celia; Bryant, Peter; Houde, Olivier (2005). Language-Specific Effects on Number Computation in Toddlers, Developmental Science. A fundamental question in developmental science is how brains with and without language compute numbers. Measuring young children's verbal reactions in France (Paris) and in England (Oxford), here we show that, although there is a general arithmetic ability for small numbers that is shared by monkeys and preverbal infants, the development of such initial knowledge in humans follows specific performance patterns, depending on what language the children speak.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, English, French, Correlation

Polson, Martha C.; And Others (1981). Competition for Left Hemisphere Resources: Right Hemisphere Superiority at Abstract Verbal Information Processing. A study tested a multiple-resources model of human information processing wherein the two cerebral hemispheres are assumed to have separate, limited-capacity pools of undifferentiated resources. The subjects were five right-handed males who had demonstrated right visual field-left hemisphere (RVF-LH) superiority for processing a centrally presented verbal memory load and a nonsense syllable naming task in which the syllables were presented to either visual field. The subjects were paid according to their accuracy during both single and dual-task trials, with the payoff on the latter varied to induce more attention to the memory task, to the visual field naming task, or to both. Under moderate to heavy memory loads, the subjects who had shown large RVF single-task performance advantages for naming nonsense words showed larger performance decrements on RVF trials than on LVF trials in the dual-task situation; that is, both naming task and memory performance were superior when the naming task stimuli were presented to the left visual field. In addition, performance tradeoffs between tasks occurred on both types of visual field trials, thus providing evidence of overlap in demand. Overall, the experiment illustrated the prescribed methodology for testing models of limited-capacity processing, and the data supported the idea that there are at least two types of resource supplies, which are associated with processing in the left and right hemispheres. Descriptors: Adults, Cerebral Dominance, Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Processes

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1990). The Topological Scaling of Consciousness: The World in the Perspectives of Economists and Technologists. No. 34. The psychological concept of consciousness is examined in this article. It is argued that the intentionality of an individual's behavior is the key to the measurement and representation of his consciousness. The experiment examined concerns groups of students of business administration and civil engineering as well as professional economists, and their responses to models of future society. Topological structures are formulated based on the groups' responses in terms of various aspects of consciousness as it is here defined. Distinctive aspects characterize the groups such that they can be ordered on a scale from non-consciousness to consciousness. Increasing consciousness implies increasing conceptual autonomy in the respective group's cooperation with its environment, and consequently, also an increase in its chance to survive in competition. A 31-item list of references is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Measurement, Cognitive Processes, Cognitive Psychology, Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1996). Degrees of Consciousness in the Communication of Actions and Events on the Visual Cliff. No. 58. The consciousness of dizygotic twins in their communication of actions and events as seen in the visual cliff pictures published by E. J. Gibson and R. D. Walk (1960) was studied in Sweden. In the process of communication, many different state spaces are generated. The methodology demonstrates that ecological and biophysical properties of language produce unique morphological profiles. Four pairs of twins were exposed to these pictures in a classroom setting, and the text they built in response to the pictures was studied. The focus is on one pair of dizygotic twins between 16 and 17 years of age. At the kinetic level, stable relationships are identified among naturally occurring periods, mass, and length of text. The relating invariants are demonstrated through a multivariate statistical strategy involving an analysis of variance, an indexing of the size of effects, and a regression analysis. At the kinematic level, adiabatic trajectories are apparent, for which underlying state spaces and interrelated metrics are shown to be dependent on the particular text producer. It is made evident that a certain degree of consciousness is carried by a particular kind of concepts and conceptual relations. Finally, it is concluded that perceiving a phenomenon differs not only in degree but in kind from conceiving its consequences. Results also support the use of the Scanator methodology developed by B. Bierschenk as a way to keep track of unitizing activities. An appendix presents the original Swedish text produced by the four subjects. (Contains 18 figures, 7 tables, and 26 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Biological Influences, Communication (Thought Transfer), Foreign Countries

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1988). The "Visual Cliff" Transformed: A Factoranalytic Definition of Affordances. Report 25. The problem investigated in this study was formulated against a background of the theory of affordance as it was tested with the famous "Visual Cliff" experiment. The present study is based on the assumption that perceivers can detect transformational as well as structural invariants not only in the context of the classical "Visual Cliff" experiments but also when their basic assumptions are transformed into the social realm. On the hypothesis that structural invariants can be defined as an invariant combination of variables of significance for the perception of social structure, a series of three factor analytic studies was conducted with a sample of 611 subjects. The first study involved 214 inservice teachers and 57 high school students in Sweden; the second study involved 180 residents of the Lund-Malmo area of southern Sweden; and the third study involved 160 university and college students in Sweden. The three studies were used to: (1) reduce an initial data set in the empirical approach to the Gibsonian concept of affordance; (2) extend the search for a two-component structure; and (3) confirm the existence of invariance in the affordance structure. Despite different sets of variables, different sample subjects, and a time interval of 7 years, it was possible to infer the existence of two ecological components defining the transformed "Visual Cliff". The first specifies the nature of change (the development of worth), while the second specifies the structure that undergoes change (the visibility of developed worth).   [More]  Descriptors: Change, College Students, Ecology, Factor Analysis

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 111 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include D. Kurtzberg, Sofie M. M. Loyens, Jorgen Aage Jensen, Giorgio Vallortigara, Jytte Bang, Dale H. Schunk, Remy M. J. P. Rikers, Valeria Anna Sovrano, Deborah Kelemen, and Ole Elstrup Rasmussen.

Mislevy, Robert J. (2010). Some Implications of Expertise Research for Educational Assessment, Research Papers in Education. An educational assessment embodies an argument from a handful of observations of what students say, do or make in a handful of particular circumstances, to what they know or can do in what kinds of situations more broadly. This article discusses ways in which research into the nature and development of expertise can help assessment designers create tasks that address key aspects of targeted learning. Four themes from expertise are presented: organisation of knowledge, social aspects of expertise, knowledge representations and interaction. Ways to develop assessment tasks around these themes are illustrated with examples from applied projects.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Assessment, Test Construction, Expertise, Research

Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Magda, Joshua; Rikers, Remy M. J. P. (2008). Self-Directed Learning in Problem-Based Learning and Its Relationships with Self-Regulated Learning, Educational Psychology Review. This study investigated the role of self-directed learning (SDL) in problem-based learning (PBL) and examined how SDL relates to self-regulated learning (SRL). First, it is explained how SDL is implemented in PBL environments. Similarities between SDL and SRL are highlighted. However, both concepts differ on important aspects. SDL includes an additional premise of giving students a broader role in the selection and evaluation of learning materials. SDL can encompass SRL, but the opposite does not hold. Further, a review of empirical studies on SDL and SRL in PBL was conducted. Results suggested that SDL and SRL are developmental processes, that the "self" aspect is crucial, and that PBL can foster SDL. It is concluded that conceptual clarity of what SDL entails and guidance for both teachers and students can help PBL to bring forth self-directed learners.   [More]  Descriptors: Problem Based Learning, Teaching Methods, Independent Study, Cognitive Development

Bierschenk, Inger (1998). Civil Depth Perception: An Experiment in Competence Development. This article focuses on the perception of the surface and deep dimensions of a society and its relation to competence. Participants were 117 students from various educational programs in a Swedish gymnasium who were exposed to videotaped projections of model societies on 2 occasions. They responded to 15 statements marking the degree of certainty with which they perceived quality of life in these societies. The instrument measured life quality (LQ) in a society by two factors, Eigenvalue (F1) and Visibility of Social Texture (F2). The model societies were based on three modes of modeling man interacting with his society, specifically on the concepts of: (1) behaviorism; (2) structuralism; and (3) process. The function of these concepts had been made to specify an actual society, namely Sweden. It was assumed that Sweden was familiar to the participants, but conceptually unknown. Between the two video occasions students were given a 9-week course in modern ideas and concepts, especially those from 20th century novels that connect to the three models. The certainty with which the students perceived the Eigenvalue and its conservation in Social Texture in the four societies differed significantly from the first to the second occasion. The first time, the only society that meets the requirements is the society based on behavior modification, while the other three seem unspecified to all the students. The second time there is a dramatic change in that Sweden now was assessed with the highest certainty, and secondly that is was conceptualized mainly by the behaviorist model. The study shows that the students have augmented their conceptual understanding of the dimensionality of a society and have come to "know" the society in which they live. (Contains 1 table, 4 figures, and 25 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Comprehension, Foreign Countries, High School Students

Bierschenk, Bernhard (1998). The Basic Conditions of Life: An Ecological Approach to Perceptual Sensitivity of Swedish and Danish Students. No. 67. A simulation experiment demonstrated that the perceptual sensitivity of Swedish and Danish students at upper secondary school level varies systematically concerning the basic conditions for "personal growth." An attempt is made to constrain this concept contextually, in such a way that it can be described behaviorally. It is made evident that Swedish students are certain that only a society founded on the principles of behavior modification can provide the conditions for their personal growth. In contrast, Danish students have demonstrated a higher degree of differential sensitivity to contextual variations. Consequently, for them, a society that is building on behavioristic principles accommodates significantly different conditions for personal growth compared to a society building on process principles. Moreover, all three prototypical societies are discerned to have significantly fewer favorable conditions for the development of Life Quality (LQ) compared to the conditions of the Danish society. However, with respect to its surface conditions, the latter is determined to be highly similar to the social texture of the prototypical society which is obeying the principles of the process paradigm. Contains 7 tables of data and 30 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Modification, Comparative Analysis, Foreign Countries, High School Students

Shafer, V.L.; Kessler, K.L.; Schwartz, R.G.; Morr, M.L.; Kurtzberg, D. (2005). Electrophysiological Indices of Brain Activity to "The" in Discourse, Brain and Language. In a first experiment, we recorded event-related-potentials (ERPs) to "the" followed by meaningful words (Story) versus "the" followed by nonsense syllables (Nonse). Left and right lateral anterior positivities (LAPs) were seen from the onset of "the"up to 200 ms in both conditions. Later than 200 ms following the onset of "the" the left and right LAPs continued for "the" in the Story, but were replaced by a negativity in the Nonse Condition. In a second experiment, ERPs were recorded to "the" in the Story and Nonse contexts mixed together under two different task instructions (Attend to the auditory stimuli versus ignore the auditory stimuli). The same pattern of findings as Experiment 1 were observed for the Story and Nonse contexts when the participants attended to the auditory stimuli. Ignoring the auditory stimuli led to an attenuation of the right LAP, supporting the hypothesis that it is an index of discourse processing.   [More]  Descriptors: Experiments, Reading Processes, Adults, Brain

Bierschenk, Inger (2000). Do the Humanities Contribute to Education? No. 75. The focus of this article is whether pure literature can contribute to education. As part of the study of modern literature in Swedish upper secondary school, novels about the future were examined, especially some that take a critical position toward modern civilization. In an experiment using the Perspective Text Analysis approach of B. Bierschenk and I. Bierschenk (1993), a master text was chosen that had shown the theoretically rooted dimensionality of "futurism" as a socially valid concept. Students (18 year olds) were given the task of writing about a novel using concepts from the master text, focusing on "public morality" for the analysis. The hypothesis tested was that a novel writer contributed to the edification of the public only if he or she translates some structural dimension in an ongoing process of civilization. To this translation is attached the sense of public morality. The three novels studied were "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley (1932), "En levande sjal" ("A Living Soul") by P. C. Jersild (1980), and "The Handmaid's Tale" by Margaret Atwood (1985). The study found that when the students' responses were matched against the master structure, only one of the three novels, Huxley's "Brave New World," met the criterion of being educational with respect to futurism. It contributes to education by mediating an ideology behind a civilization process with a sense of morality. (Contains 18 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Foreign Countries, Higher Education, Humanities

Vallortigara, Giorgio; Feruglio, Marco; Sovrano, Valeria Anna (2005). Reorientation by Geometric and Landmark Information in Environments of Different Size, Developmental Science. It has been found that disoriented children could use geometric information in combination with landmark information to reorient themselves in large but not in small experimental spaces. We tested domestic chicks in the same task and found that they were able to conjoin geometric and nongeometric (landmark) information to reorient themselves in both the large and the small space used. Moreover, chicks reoriented immediately when displaced from a large to a small experimental space and vice versa, suggesting that they used the relative metrics of the environment. However, when tested with a transformation (affine transformation) that alters the geometric relations between the target and the shape of the environment, chicks tended to make more errors based on geometric information when tested in the small than in the large space. These findings suggest that the reliance of the use of geometric information on the spatial scale of the environment is not restricted to the human species.   [More]  Descriptors: Geometric Concepts, Children, Cognitive Science, Animals

Bierschenk, Inger (2000). Testing for Competence. No. 76. The aim of this article is to draw a distinction between qualification and competence. Although academic institutions, organizations, companies, and schools are focusing on competence development as the natural answer to new technical and societal demands, no one has provided a satisfactory operational definition of "competence." A dictionary search has shown that different areas of science and the humanities conceive of competence from an analytical point of view, but the Latin word on which the word is based comprises properties of intentionality, adding both dynamic and individual components to the concept. This became the starting point for a study in which a student's competence was examined through Perspective Text Analysis (B. Bierschenk and I. Bierschenck, 1993), an entirely new method for making visible the structural relations of texts. In this study, a teacher of Swedish language and literature at the upper secondary level made visible for himself a conceptual structure that served as a steering instrument for literature study in class and also as the criteria for assessing and grading. He tested a student, who had not been able to qualify to pass the course, and was able to show that the student had produced a structure similar to the one that served as a criterion. The study suggests that by this method it is possible to identify students' competence, which may be deep enough for scoring high on a test despite insufficient qualifications. Competence is found to be beyond qualifications, and a grading system that aims at taking into account every single person's ability, would profit from this new approach. (Contains 2 figures and 23 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Definitions, Learning, Problem Solving

Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A. (2008). Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review, Journal of Educational Computing Research. The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect recognition; and iii) emotional instruction and design. Affective learning instructional technology is a new, multidisciplinary research area, which has been developed during the last decade. This article depicts the development of the core relevant areas and describes the concerns.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Technology, Literature Reviews, Interdisciplinary Approach, Cognitive Science

Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed. (2010). Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development, Guilford Publications. This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters explore the complex interplay of neurobiological and environmental influences in the development of memory, language, reading, inhibitory control, and other core aspects of cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Throughout, the volume gives particular attention to what the research reveals about ways to support learning and healthy development in all children. Illustrations include four pages in full color. This book is divided into three parts. Part I, History, Method, and Theory, includes: (1) The Role of Neuroscience in Historical and Contemporary Theories of Human Development (Sidney J. Segalowitz); (2) Some Ways in Which Neuroscientific Research Can Be Relevant to Education (James P. Byrnes); (3) The Structural Development of the Human Brain as Measured Longitudinally with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Rhoshel K. Lenroot and Jay N. Giedd); and (4) Dynamic Development of Hemispheric Biases in Three Cases: Cognitive/Hemispheric Cycles, Music, and Hemispherectomy (Mary Helen Immordino-Yang and Kurt W. Fischer). Part II, The Developing Brain and Behavior in Infancy and Toddlerhood, includes: (5) The Social Brain in Infancy: A Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Approach (Mark H. Johnson); (6) Recognition Memory: Brain-Behavior Relations from 0 to 3 (Sara Jane Webb); (7) Experience and Developmental Changes in the Organization of Language-Relevant Brain Activity (Debra L. Mills and Elizabeth A. Sheehan); (8) Temperament and Biology (Jerome Kagan and Nancy Snidman); and (9) Frontal Lobe Development during Infancy and Childhood: Contributions of Brain Electrical Activity, Temperament, and Language to Individual Differences in Working Memory and Inhibitory Control (Martha Ann Bell, Christy D. Wolfe, and Denise R. Adkins). Part III, The Developing Brain and Behavior in School-Age Children and Adolescents, includes: (10) Brain Bases of Learning and Development of Language and Reading (James R. Booth); (11) Development of Verbal Working Memory (Gal Ben-Yehudah and Julie A. Fiez); (12) Emotion Processing and the Developing Brain (Alison B. Wismer Fries and Seth D. Pollak); and (13) Brain Development and Adolescent Behavior (Linda Patia Spear).   [More]  Descriptors: Infants, Personality, Short Term Memory, Recognition (Psychology)

Bang, Jytte; Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup (2000). Competence Development Learning by Problem Solving. No. 74. A dialogue between two secondary school students engaged in solving a problem is the basis for the assertion that the students differ in their problem solving capabilities; that is, they reduce the complexity of the situation in different ways. The discussion also suggests that students do not use the same form of competence. They make sense of the complex situation in different ways. It is also maintained that existing theories are able to explain different aspects of the problem solving process and competence. However, because no single theory encompasses all the aspects, a more comprehensive theory is proposed. This theory encompasses the notion that the person, through ideas, is able to consider and anticipate problem solving operations, thus displaying competence. More precisely, the person is in control through four processes: (1) efficacy, the degree to which the person experiences the feeling of control of the problem solving process itself; (2) achievement, the degree to which the person experiences that he or she is approaching the goal; (3) ruggedness, the degree of difficulty the person feels he or she has to overcome to solve the problem; and (4) availability, the degree to which the person feels that he or she has access to vital resources. With this frame of reference, an interpretation of the two students' problem solving processes is carried out using Perspective Text Analysis (B. Bierschenk and I. Bierschenk, 1993), a technique for making visible the structural relations of texts. It is also suggested that it is possible to apply catastrophe theory to make a model of problem-solving behavior. (Contains 8 figures and 29 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Educational Theories, Foreign Countries, High School Students

Casler, Krista; Kelemen, Deborah (2005). Young Children's Rapid Learning about Artifacts, Developmental Science. Tool use is central to interdisciplinary debates about the evolution and distinctiveness of human intelligence, yet little is actually known about how human conceptions of artifacts develop. Results across these two studies show that even 2-year-olds approach artifacts in ways distinct from captive tool-using monkeys. Contrary to adult intuition, children do not treat all objects with appropriate properties as equally good means to an end. Instead, they use social information to rapidly form enduring artifact categories. After only one exposure to an artifact's functional use, children will construe the tool as "for" that particular purpose and, furthermore, avoid using it for another feasible purpose. This teleo-functional tendency to categorize tools by intentional use represents a precursor to the design stance–the adult-like tendency to understand objects in terms of intended function–and provides an early foundation for apparently distinctive human abilities in efficient long-term tool use and design.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Cognition, Classification, Design, Developmental Stages

Rasmussen, Ole Elstrup; Jensen, Jorgen Aage (2000). Preparations for Modelling the Relationship between Competence and Qualifications. No. 77. This report presents basic theoretical and methodological assumptions for investigating the relationship between competence and qualifications by means of simulation tasks. An analysis of the types of tasks that have been used in the study of problem solving psychology serves as a background for an exposition of the relationship between competence and qualifications. The vehicle for investigating competence and qualifications is the INTOPIA computer program, which simulates a virtual international reality of global enterprises from construction of plants to the sale and financing of products. Findings are reported from a pilot experiment involving two teams of two adults each, the aim of which was to examine the feasibility of using the program in research. Findings indicate that the number of sessions needs to be reduced from the amount used in the teaching situation for which it was developed originally. The issues for investigation in a forthcoming experiment and the tool to be used for modeling the behavior of subjects are outlined. (Contains 35 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competence, Computer Software, Educational Theories, Models

Schunk, Dale H. (2008). Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning: Research Recommendations, Educational Psychology Review. Much research has been conducted on metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning, but the articles in this special issue make it clear that we still have many unanswered questions. Recommendations for research include providing clear definitions of processes, identifying relevant theories, ensuring that assessments clearly reflect processes, linking processes with academic outcomes, conducting more educational developmental research, and tying processes firmly with instructional methods. Collectively, these recommendations will enhance our understanding of metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning and will lead to solid implications for educational policy and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Metacognition, Educational Policy, Teaching Methods

Maggioni, Liliana; Parkinson, Meghan M. (2008). The Role of Teacher Epistemic Cognition, Epistemic Beliefs, and Calibration in Instruction, Educational Psychology Review. This review examines the literature on teacher epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, and calibration to consider the relation between these constructs and instruction that emerged from empirical studies. In considering how this body of literature can enhance understanding of how students become masters of their learning processes, we will briefly review how different theoretical frameworks have conceptualized the relation between epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, calibration and metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Implications for research include a more nuanced conceptualization of epistemic beliefs and a theoretical integration of these constructs. Implications for practice regard the reciprocal relations between teachers' knowledge, experience, epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, and calibration and their effects on pedagogical practices. The role of teachers' education and professional development is discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Metacognition, Learning Processes, Teaching Methods, Epistemology

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 110 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Linda Herkenhoff, Jenny Singleton, Barry Eshkol Adelman, Laura Warren, Chun-Wei Huang, Eugenio Parise, Andrea Handl, Eugene E. Garcia, Tricia Striano, and Deborah P. Waber.

Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Masten, Carrie L.; Borofsky, Larissa A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Matthew D. (2009). Neural Correlates of Direct and Reflected Self-Appraisals in Adolescents and Adults: When Social Perspective-Taking Informs Self-Perception, Child Development. Classic theories of self-development suggest people define themselves in part through internalized perceptions of other people's beliefs about them, known as reflected self-appraisals. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the neural correlates of direct and reflected self-appraisals in adolescence (N = 12, ages 11-14 years) and adulthood (N = 12, ages 23-30 years). During direct self-reflection, adolescents demonstrated greater activity than adults in networks relevant to self-perception (medial prefrontal and parietal cortices) and social-cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporal-parietal junction, and posterior superior temporal sulcus), suggesting adolescent self-construals may rely more heavily on others' perspectives about the self. Activity in the medial fronto-parietal network was also enhanced when adolescents took the perspective of someone more relevant to a given domain.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Brain, Correlation, Self Concept

Heydenfeldt, Jo Ann; Herkenhoff, Linda; Coe, Mary (2011). Cultivating Mind Fitness through Mindfulness Training: Applied Neuroscience, Performance Improvement. Mindfulness reduces distress, promotes optimal health, improves attentional control, mental agility, emotional intelligence, and situational awareness. Stress management and cognitive performance in Marines who spent more hours practicing Mindfulness Based Mind Fitness Training were superior to those soldiers who practiced fewer hours. Students receiving mindfulness training without practice demonstrated no significant change. The literature suggests that mindfulness training designed to inform rather than to train may not produce measurable results. Systematic, effortful, skill-building programs are indicated.   [More]  Descriptors: Stress Management, Emotional Intelligence, Military Personnel, Training

Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny (2009). Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness, Child Development. The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually based culture and language provides deaf children with affordances that promote resiliency and optimization in their development of visual engagement, executive functions, and theory of mind. These experiences promote neural adaptations permitting nuanced perception of classes of linguistic and emotional-social behaviors. Studies of deafness provide examples of how interactions and contributions of biological predispositions and genetic phenotypes with environmental and cultural factors including childhood experiences and actions of caregivers shape developmental trajectories (M. I. Posner & M. K. Rothbart, 2007).   [More]  Descriptors: Social Environment, Linguistics, Deafness, Caregivers

Hoehl, Stefanie; Reid, Vincent M.; Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Striano, Tricia (2009). Looking at Eye Gaze Processing and Its Neural Correlates in Infancy–Implications for Social Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder, Child Development. The importance of eye gaze as a means of communication is indisputable. However, there is debate about whether there is a dedicated neural module, which functions as an eye gaze detector and when infants are able to use eye gaze cues in a referential way. The application of neuroscience methodologies to developmental psychology has provided new insights into early social cognitive development. This review integrates findings on the development of eye gaze processing with research on the neural mechanisms underlying infant and adult social cognition. This research shows how a cognitive neuroscience approach can improve our understanding of social development and autism spectrum disorder.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Development, Infants, Cues, Eye Movements

Aldous, Carol R. (2007). Creativity, Problem Solving and Innovative Science: Insights from History, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience, International Education Journal. This paper examines the intersection between creativity, problem solving, cognitive psychology and neuroscience in a discussion surrounding the genesis of new ideas and innovative science. Three creative activities are considered. These are (a) the interaction between visual-spatial and analytical or verbal reasoning, (b) attending to feeling in listening to the "self", and (c) the interaction between conscious and non-conscious reasoning. Evidence for the importance of each of these activities to the creative process is drawn from (a) historical and introspective accounts of novel problem solving by noted scientists and mathematicians; (b) cognitive psychology and neuroscience; and (c) a recent empirical study of novel mathematics problem solving. An explanation of these activities is given in terms of cognitive neuroscience. A conceptual framework connecting each of these activities is presented and the implications for learning and teaching considered.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Creativity, Creative Activities, Problem Solving, Interaction

Waber, Deborah P. (2010). Rethinking Learning Disabilities: Understanding Children Who Struggle in School, Guilford Publications. Experts have yet to reach consensus about what a learning disability is, how to determine if a child has one, and what to do about it. Leading researcher and clinician Deborah Waber offers an alternative to the prevailing view of learning disability as a problem contained within the child. Instead, she shows how learning difficulties are best understood as a function of the developmental interaction between the child and the world. Integrating findings from education, developmental psychology, and cognitive neuroscience, she offers a novel approach with direct practical implications. Detailed real-world case studies illustrate how this approach can promote positive outcomes for children who struggle in school. This book is organized into two parts. Part I, The Developmental Approach to Learning Disabilities, includes: (1) The Dilemma: What Is a Learning Disability?; (2) A Learning Disability Is a Developmental Problem; (3) A Developmental Science Perspective on Learning Disabilities; (4) A Lifespan Perspective on Learning Disabilities; (5) Identifying Learning Disabilities: A Developmental Approach; and (6) Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: Automatic and Effortful Processing. Part II, Diagnosing the Child-World Interaction, includes: (7) Identical Twins; (8) An Adequate Achiever with Learning Problems; (9) Beyond a "Reading Problem"; (10) Learning-Disabled Children Grown Up; and (11) A Developmental Strategy for Resolving the Dilemma.   [More]  Descriptors: Reading Difficulties, Learning Problems, Twins, Learning Disabilities

Petrill, Stephen A.; Justice, Laura M. (2007). Bridging the Gap between Genomics and Education, Mind, Brain, and Education. Despite several decades of research suggesting the importance of both genetic and environmental factors, these findings are not well integrated into the larger educational literature. Following a discussion of quantitative and molecular genetic methods, this article reviews behavioral genetic findings related to cognitive and academic skills. This literature suggests that (a) the relative importance of genes and environments varies developmentally; (b) genetics, and to a lesser extend the environment, account for a substantial portion of the covariance within and across academic domains; and (c) some forms of disability are qualitatively different from the population, whereas others constitute the lower end of a continuum of ability. Following a discussion of the strengths and limitations of current behavioral genetic research and intervention research, we then discuss the ways in which understanding gene-environment interplay can be used to develop better definitions of learning impairment and better explain the substantial variability in response to intervention.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Educational Research, Literature Reviews, Learning Disabilities

Frederickson, Norah; Jones, Alice P.; Warren, Laura; Deakes, Tara; Allen, Geoff (2013). Can Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Inform Intervention for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD)?, Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties. An initial evaluation of the utility of designing an intervention to address neuroscience-based subtyping of children who have conduct problems was undertaken in this pilot study. Drawing on the literature on callous-unemotional traits, a novel intervention programme, "Let's Get Smart", was implemented in a school for children with social emotional and behavioural difficulties. A mixed-methods design was used to investigate the perspectives of staff participant-observers in the change process, alongside standardised scores on measures of pupil performance and behaviour. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed reductions in externalising behaviour and improvements in measures of hypothesised underlying cognitive and affective processes. While externalising behaviour improved across subtypes, associated changes in underlying processes differed by subtype, supporting the potential value of neuroscience-informed contributions to intervention planning.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Science, Neurosciences, Cognitive Development, Behavior Problems

Mislevy, Robert J.; Huang, Chun-Wei (2006). Measurement Models as Narrative Structures. CSE Report 680, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Advances in cognitive research increase the need for assessment that can address the processes and the strategies by which persons solve problems. Several psychometric models have been introduced to handle claims cast in information-processing terms, explicitly modeling performance in terms of theory-based predictions of performance. Cognitively based item response theory IRT [item response theory] models incorporate features of items that influence persons' responses, and relate these features to response probabilities. A number of these models are discussed in terms of the interplay between the formal characteristics of the probability models and the substantive narratives they support. Examples include the Linear Logistic Test Model, mixtures of IRT models, and multivariate structured IRT models.   [More]  Descriptors: Cognitive Science, Cognitive Processes, Problem Solving, Psychometrics

Grandy, Richard; Duschl, Richard A. (2007). Reconsidering the Character and Role of Inquiry in School Science: Analysis of a Conference, Science & Education. We summarize a conference on scientific inquiry bringing together science educators, cognitive scientists and philosophers of science with three goals: (1) to establish how much consensus exists about scientific inquiry; (2) to discuss implications of that consensus for teaching science; and (3) to identify areas where consensus is lacking to establish where further research and discussion would be most valuable.   [More]  Descriptors: Science Education, Science Instruction, Inquiry, Educational Objectives

Sparks, Sarah D. (2013). Skills Promoted to Aid Learning Amid Adversity, Education Week. Poverty, neglect, or family stress can make it especially difficult for young children to develop the self-discipline and habits of mind they will need to succeed in the classroom and beyond. Armed with research and a commitment to the whole child, Washington state has transformed the way its agencies work together and in partnership with researchers to address the effects of early adversity on learning and to help disadvantaged children build resiliency and other so-called executive-function skills they need to learn and grow. In the process, officials hope to create a national model for rapidly translating new research in fields like cognitive and neuroscience into usable practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Disadvantaged Youth, Stress Variables, Family Problems, Poverty

Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh (2009). Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion, Oxford Review of Education. This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in many classrooms. It also criticises the use of over-simplified neuroscience to add scientific credibility to curricular reform, as has been the case in the rationale behind the recent implementation of the Northern Ireland Revised Curriculum. The paper then draws on the philosophy of Wittgenstein to highlight a further conceptual confusion which often surrounds the application of neuroscience to education.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Brain, Research Utilization, Scientific Research

Shore, Rebecca A. (2009). Reframing the First Day of School, School Administrator. Within America's school systems, sometime between kindergarten and secondary education, a wide variation appears among the achievement levels of different children. The learning gap between high-achieving high schoolers and dropouts is certainly no secret to educators. Huge sums of federal funds and foundation support have been injected into K-12 education in an attempt to bridge the learning gap. From the Annenberg Foundation's millions to the billions attached to Title I, from whole-school restructuring efforts to class-size reductions, from two decades of effective schools research to the Blue Ribbon Schools, Goals 2000 and generous Gates Foundation money, no simple solution has surfaced for bridging this gap and leaving no child behind. The author argues that the answer to bridging the learning gap lies not in asking the question "How do children learn?" but reframing it as "When do children learn?" Technological advancements and the relatively new field of cognitive neuroscience are helping to shine a bright light on the learning problem. Positron emission tomography scans and functional magnetic resonance imaging are helping Americans to answer this more critical and promising question of when children learn, and the implications are startling. The earliest years of life, before a free and appropriate education is available, appear to hold the key to learning. The author stresses a truly seamless free and appropriate education for all children should begin on the maternity ward. The author contends that only through redefining America's educational boundaries can Americans expect to close the learning gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Dropouts, High Achievement

Garcia, Eugene E.; Nanez, Jose E., Sr. (2011). Bilingualism and Cognition: Informing Research, Pedagogy, and Policy, APA Books. In the United States, approximately 7% to 10% of children are raised in bilingual households. Despite inherent advantages to bilingualism, some bilingual children experience a significant lag in academic success relative to other groups. Bridging the fields of cognitive psychology and education, this volume presents research-based knowledge on language acquisition and learning to leverage the strengths and achievements of bilingual children. By understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of the bilingual brain and the need for socioculturally inclusive pedagogy, educational researchers and practitioners can better serve this rapidly growing population. An index is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cognitive Psychology, Research, Language Acquisition

Adelman, Barry Eshkol (2007). An Underdiscussed Aspect of Chomsky (1959), Analysis of Verbal Behavior. Chomsky's (1959) review of Skinner's (1957) "Verbal Behavior" has been influential and attributed with a role in the cognitive revolution. However, while counter reviews from within behavior analysis have noted that Chomsky misunderstood the subject matter, certain aspects of his scholarship have been underdiscussed. This includes several instances where Chomsky misquotes Skinner or takes his quotes out of context. Similar to the findings of Sokal (1996a, 1996b), it is speculated that the problems with Chomsky were overlooked by cognitive psychologists because his general outlook was accepted. Implications for the editorial review process are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Verbal Stimuli, Psychologists, Periodicals, Verbal Communication

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Bibliography: Cognitive Science (page 109 of 118)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Educators website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sarah D. Sparks, Heather Butler, Emily Fox, Li Sha, Abigail Baird, F. D'Elia, Stephen R. Campbell, Daniel L. Dinsmore, Sandra M. Loughlin, and Karthigeyan Subramaniam.

Fox, Emily; Riconscente, Michelle (2008). Metacognition and Self-Regulation in James, Piaget, and Vygotsky, Educational Psychology Review. This article investigates the intertwined constructs of metacognition and self-regulation as they emerge in the works and theories of James, Piaget, and Vygotsky. To coordinate this exploration, we use an interpretive framework based on the relation of subject and object. In this framework, James's perspective on metacognition and self-regulation is aligned with the Self, Piaget's with the other and object, and Vygotsky's with the medium or agency of language. We explore how metacognition and self-regulation function within the realm of human behavior and development as described in the works of each of these theorists. Key questions or issues that emerge for current research are outlined, and the limitations and benefits of each theorist's perspective vis-a-vis metacognition and self-regulation are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Metacognition, Self Management, Self Motivation, Learning Strategies

Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Alexander, Patricia A.; Loughlin, Sandra M. (2008). Focusing the Conceptual Lens on Metacognition, Self-Regulation, and Self-Regulated Learning, Educational Psychology Review. The terms metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning appear frequently in the educational literature and are sometimes used interchangeably. In order to explore the theoretical and empirical boundaries between these three constructs and the perceptions or misperceptions that their broad and often unqualified application may engender, an analysis of their use within contemporary research was undertaken. A PsychInfo database search was conducted and 255 studies were identified for a comprehensive data table. Analysis of these data revealed trends that suggest nesting of the constructs in definition and keyword explication. However, important differences emerged in the measures of these three constructs and in environmental factors such as prompting. Implications for future research are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Metacognition, Self Management, Learner Controlled Instruction, Self Motivation

Campbell, Stephen R.; Handscomb, Kerry; Zaparyniuk, Nicholas E.; Sha, Li; Cimen, O. Arda; Shipulina, Olga V. (2009). Investigating Image-Based Perception and Reasoning in Geometry, Online Submission. Geometry is required for many secondary school students, and is often learned, taught, and assessed more in a heuristic image-based manner, than as a formal axiomatic deductive system. Students are required to prove general theorems, but diagrams are usually used. It follows that understanding how students engage in perceiving and reasoning about such diagrams can provide educators with greater insights into learning, instruction, and assessment of these matters. Simply put, the end in view of this research program should provide as much insight as possible into two fundamental questions for any given learner considering a geometrical diagram. Firstly, what aspects of that diagram are being perceived from one moment to the next, and, secondly, in what manners are those aspects of the diagram being considered. It assumed here that such a learner is having their brain waves monitored by an electroencephalograph and that the geometrical diagram is being presented on an eye-tracking monitor, recording their point of gaze. Accordingly, in this study we seek to identify brain and body activities that correlate in valid and reliable manners, and with a high degree of statistical significance, with different aspects of geometrical image-based perception and reasoning. In so doing, we seek a better understanding of cognitive processes associated with geometrical image-based learning, instruction, and assessment in mathematics education, and to contribute to extending multidisciplinary boundaries of educational research.   [More]  Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Brain, Cognitive Processes, Geometry

Howard-Jones, Paul (2008). Philosophical Challenges for Researchers at the Interface between Neuroscience and Education, Journal of Philosophy of Education. This article examines how discussions around the new interdisciplinary research area combining neuroscience and education have brought into sharp relief differences in the philosophies of learning in these two areas. It considers the difficulties faced by those working at the interface between these two areas and, in particular, it focuses on the challenge of avoiding "non-sense" when attempting to include the brain in educational argument. The paper relates common transgressions in sense-making with dualist and monist notions of the mind-brain relationship. It then extends a brain-mind-behaviour model from cognitive neuroscience to include a greater emphasis on social interaction and construction. This creates a tool for examining the potentially complex interrelationships between the different learning philosophies in this emerging new field.   [More]  Descriptors: Neurology, Brain, Cognitive Science, Learning Processes

Sparks, Sarah D. (2010). Pathways Seen for Acquiring Languages, Education Week. New studies on how language learning occurs are beginning to chip away at some long-held notions about second-language acquisition and point to potential learning benefits for students who speak more than one language. New National Science Foundation-funded collaborations among educators, cognitive scientists, neuroscientists, psychologists, and linguists have started to find the evidence to back up that assertion. Researchers long thought the window for learning a new language shrinks rapidly after age 7 and closes almost entirely after puberty. Yet interdisciplinary research conducted over the past five years at the University of Washington, Pennsylvania State University, and other colleges suggest that the time frame may be more flexible than first thought and that students who learn additional languages become more adaptable in other types of learning, too. "There has been an explosion of research on bilingual-language processing," said Judith F. Kroll, the principal investigator for the Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain project launched this month at Penn State's Center for Language Science in University Park, Pennsylvania. The five-year, $2.8 million project is intended to bring together neuroscientists, linguists, and cognitive scientists to compare the brain and mental processes of different types of bilingual people, such as a Mandarin-English speaker whose languages include different writing systems or a deaf English speaker whose signed and written languages involve different modes of communication.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Processing, Language Acquisition, Language Research, Neurolinguistics

Rose, David; Dalton, Bridget (2009). Learning to Read in the Digital Age, Mind, Brain, and Education. The digital age offers transformative opportunities for individualization of learning. First, modern imaging technologies have changed our understanding of learning and the sources and ranges of its diversity. Second, digital technologies make it possible to design learning environments that are responsive to individual differences. We draw on CAST's research and development on universal design for learning to suggest the potential of digital reading environments that are designed to support learning and engagement by addressing the diversity in learners' representation, strategic and affective networks. Optimal customization depends on continued advances in the digital tools of the neurosciences and the design and enactment of digital learning environments.   [More]  Descriptors: Learning Theories, Research and Development, Educational Technology, Access to Education

Bierschenk, Inger (1999). The Essence of Text: A Dialogue on Perspective Text Analysis. No. 70. A method for providing a synthesis of the perspective that a text producer gives to a text in the moment of its production is presented in the form of a dialogue between reader and author. Perspective Text Analysis, the system presented, is a basic methodological part of a larger system of analyses. Linguistic data in the form of free text production is important so that the prejudices and attitudes, that both the researcher and the text producer may have, do not enter into the researcher's analysis. This guide describes the fundamentals of the method, and the principles of test analysis are given through prototypical examples. The applied model is based on the assumption that its components are reflecting "perspectivation," in which a source and one or more operators can be distinguished and differentiated from one another in the building up of a perspective. When the perspective is formed, the text producer takes a position toward something he or she wants to express. (Contains 41 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Beliefs, Foreign Countries, Models

Bakhurst, David (2008). Minds, Brains and Education, Journal of Philosophy of Education. It is often argued that neuroscience can be expected to provide insights of significance for education. Advocates of this view are sometimes committed to "brainism", the view (a) that an individual's mental life is constituted by states, events and processes in her brain, and (b) that psychological attributes may legitimately be ascribed to the brain. This paper considers the case for rejecting brainism in favour of "personalism", the view that psychological attributes are appropriately ascribed only to persons and that mental phenomena do not occur "inside" the person but are aspects of her mode of engagement with the world. The paper explores arguments for personalism from Russian philosopher Evald Ilyenkov and a number of contemporary Western thinkers, including Peter Hacker and John McDowell. It is argued that, since plausible forms of personalism do not deny that brain functioning is a causal precondition of our mental lives, personalism is consistent with the claim that neuroscience is relevant to education, and not just to the explanation of learning disorders. Nevertheless, it is important that fascination with scientific innovation and technological possibility should not distort our conception of what education is or ought to be, leading us to portray education not as a communicative endeavour, but as an exercise in engineering.   [More]  Descriptors: Role of Education, Neurology, Brain, Cognitive Psychology

Subramaniam, Karthigeyan (2012). How WebQuests Can Enhance Science Learning Principles in the Classroom, Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas. This article examines the merits of WebQuests in facilitating students' in-depth understanding of science concepts using the four principles of learning gathered from the National Research Council reports "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (1999) and the "How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom" (2005) as an analytic framework. Modifications needed to make a well-constructed WebQuests for science teaching aligned to the four principles include (1) integrating student science interests and cultural and social backgrounds to curricular goals and then using this as means to design WebQuests, (2) providing students opportunities to examine science-related Internet websites to discriminate credible and false information and then giving them the opportunity to include and use the websites for the "task" step in WebQuests, and (3) providing cognitive tools and guidance within the "process" step so that students are engaged in argumentation and negotiation akin to a community of scientists.   [More]  Descriptors: Scientific Principles, Courseware, Classroom Techniques, Scientific Concepts

Aiello, P.; D'Elia, F.; Di Tore, S.; Sibilio, M. (2012). A Constructivist Approach to Virtual Reality for Experiential Learning, E-Learning and Digital Media. Consideration of a possible use of virtual reality technologies in school contexts requires gathering together the suggestions of many scientific domains aimed at "understanding" the features of these same tools that let them offer valid support to the teaching-learning processes in educational settings. Specifically, the present study is aimed at creating a theoretical framework for the didactic use of VR technologies in schools, highlighting the characteristics of these tools that are supported by a view of teaching that enhances sensorimotor activity in learning. The theoretical approach, through the study of the international scientific literature on this topic, offers interdisciplinary suggestions for realising teaching-learning practices that are supported by scientific principles and a concept of learning that is consistent with the processes that these tools may activate.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Simulation, Computer Assisted Instruction, Teaching Methods, Experiential Learning

Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang (2012). Operation ARA: A Computerized Learning Game that Teaches Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning, Thinking Skills and Creativity. Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They are tutored by avatars with tutoring sessions that vary depending on how well students have responded to questions about the material they are learning. Students also play a jeopardy-like game against a feisty avatar to identify flaws in research and then generate their own questions to determine the quality of different types of research. The research examples are taken from psychology, biology, and chemistry to help students transfer the thinking skills across domains of knowledge. Early results show encouraging learning gains.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Thinking, Tutoring, Thinking Skills, Educational Games

Coch, Donna; Michlovitz, Stephen A.; Ansari, Daniel; Baird, Abigail (2009). Building Mind, Brain, and Education Connections: The View from the Upper Valley, Mind, Brain, and Education. This article describes the efforts of a small group of educators and researchers to build a model for making connections across mind, brain, and education. With a common goal of sharing, strengthening, and building useable knowledge about child and adolescent learning and development, we focused on questions of mutual interest to educators and researchers. We describe our efforts to develop a common vocabulary and language and to create opportunities for dialogue and discussion, including classes and talks for in-service and preservice teachers, research laboratories open to in-service and preservice teachers, local conferences that provided a context for educator and researcher interactions, and researcher outreach in the local education community at the administrative, classroom, and student levels. These activities represent concrete mechanisms by which links might be forged between educators and researchers within the context of Mind, Brain, and Education.   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teachers, Educational Research, Researchers, Brain

Brone, Geert; Coulson, Seana (2010). Processing Deliberate Ambiguity in Newspaper Headlines: Double Grounding, Discourse Processes: A Multidisciplinary Journal. Two experiments investigated the processing and appreciation of double grounding, a form of intentional ambiguity often used in the construction of headlines. For example, in "Russia takes the froth off Carlsberg results," the key element, "takes the froth off," is significant both metaphorically, where it refers to the detrimental impact of Russia, and metonymically via a contextual link between the company Carlsberg and beer, its best-known product. This study predicted that double-grounded metaphors would be more cognitively demanding than comparable single-grounded metaphors (where there is no such contextual link) and that, consequently, they would result in greater cognitive effects. Experiment 1 found longer reading times for headlines that employed double-grounded metaphors than for headlines that employed single-grounded metaphors with a similar meaning. Results suggested the re-profiling of the literal interpretation in double-grounded metaphors is cognitively demanding. Experiment 2 found that double-grounded metaphors were rated higher on a wittiness scale than single-grounded ones, revealing the aesthetic effect of double grounding. Results of Experiment 2 also suggest that participants in Experiment 1 were aware of the local ambiguity, ruling out the possibility that increased reading times observed in that experiment indexed failure of comprehension. Results of both experiments are discussed in terms of ideas from cognitive semantics.   [More]  Descriptors: Semantics, Figurative Language, Cognitive Processes, Rhetorical Theory

Dolby, Nadine (2012). Rethinking Multicultural Education for the Next Generation: The New Empathy and Social Justice, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. "Rethinking Multicultural Education for the Next Generation" builds on the legacy of social justice multicultural education, while recognizing the considerable challenges of reaching today's college students. By drawing on breakthrough research in two fields–neuroscience and animal studies–Nadine Dolby argues that empathy is an underlying element of all living beings. Dolby shows how this commonality can provide a scaffolding for building an exciting new approach to developing multicultural and global consciousness, one that has the potential to transform how our students see and relate to the world around them. This book features classroom vignettes and reflections, discussion of research with pre-service teachers on the concept of empathy, and pedagogical suggestions for fostering the new empathy in students. Incorporating discussions of animal emotions, sustainability, and our responsibilities to all living creatures and the planet, Dolby challenges multicultural educators to rethink both curriculum and pedagogy and to begin new and bolder conversations about how empathy for humans, animals, and the planet must be part of a new approach to teaching.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Animals, Multicultural Education, Empathy

Herman, Jana Morgan (2012). Creating Balance in the New Age of Technology, Montessori Life: A Publication of the American Montessori Society. Marc Prensky coined the term "digital native" in 2001 to describe those who have grown up with a constant interaction of technology, including television, video games, and the Internet (Prensky, 2001). For these people, many of them now in their twenties, life has always included the presence of screens–televisions, cell phones, iPods, video games, and computers. Additionally, digital natives tend to believe they can use many of these devices at the same time and do it very well (multitasking). For years, scientists and psychologists have believed that the most vital brain development takes place between birth and 6 years. Maria Montessori herself believed that major sensitive periods during the first 6 years include order, language, writing, and culture, and discussed sensitive periods of development in detail in "The Secret of Childhood" and "The Absorbent Mind". Studies have shown that the use of technology can interfere with one's understanding of the micro-muscle movements and associated behavioral cues. Media has brought an unparalleled access to information; however, children in today's world need adults who can balance the benefits of technology with its shortcomings. In this article, the author discusses how to create balance in the new age of technology. Suggestions for more balanced technology use are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Influence of Technology, Access to Information, Adolescents, Generational Differences

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